barotrauma


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Related to barotrauma: Sinus barotrauma, volutrauma

barotrauma

 [bar″o-traw´mah]
injury caused by pressure differences between the external environment and the inside of a bodily structure. Seen with structures of the ear, in high altitude flyers and others (see barotitis media and barosinusitis). In the lung it is caused by excessive airway pressures, resulting in extra-alveolar air, as in pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, or pneumoperitoneum.

bar·o·trau·ma

(băr'ō-traw'mă),
A term previously used to describe injury to the middle ear or paranasal sinuses, resulting from imbalance between ambient pressure and that within the affected cavity. Now mostly used to refer to lung injury due to pressure such as occurs when a patient is on a ventilator and is subjected to high airway pressure (pulmonary barotrauma).
[G. baros, weight, + trauma]

barotrauma

ENT
Middle-ear injury which occurs while flying or scuba diving, caused by major disparities in air pressure between the middle ear and the nasopharynx—which is usually equilibrated by an open eustachian tube.
 
Clinical findings
Disequilibrium, disorientation, nausea, vomiting.

Sports medicine
Tissue injury due to the failure of a gas-filled body space—e.g., lungs, middle ear, sinuses—to equilibrate internal pressure to ambient pressure; because the cavities located within a bone cannot collapse, the space they occupy is filled with oedema in the mucosal membrane or haemorrhage. Barotrauma often results from rapid or extreme changes in external pressure—e.g., explosions.

barotrauma

Audiology Middle ear injury caused by ↑ air pressure; trauma to the inner ear 2º to atmospheric pressure alteration, which occurs while flying or deep water diving, resulting in ↓ visual and proprioceptive cues due to ↓ vestibular input Clinical Disequilibrium, disorientation, N&V Sports medicine Tissue injury due to the failure of a gas-filled body space–eg, lungs, middle ear, sinuses, to equalize internal pressure to ambient pressure; barotrauma often results from rapid or extreme changes in external pressure–eg, explosions. See Atmospheric inner ear barotruma, Pulmonary barotrauma.

bar·o·trau·ma

(bar'ō-traw'mă)
1. Injury to the middle ear or paranasal sinuses, resulting from imbalance between ambient pressure and that within the affected cavity.
See also: aerotitis, barotitis media
2. Lung injury that occurs when a patient is on a ventilator and is subjected toexcessive airway pressure (pulmonary barotrauma).
[G. baros, weight, + trauma]

barotrauma

Injury resulting from changes in atmospheric (barometric) pressure as in aircraft flight. Barotrauma mostly affects the ear drums when there is obstruction to the EUSTACHIAN TUBES. The most serious forms of barotrauma result from explosive noise which can literally shake the delicate hair-cell transducers in the middle ear to pieces.
References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, they say walleyes were resilient to capture and handling, including handling in air and on ice prior to release, and even fish that showed signs of barotrauma had high survival.
At the first beginning, it was recognized that lungs ventilated with high ventilatory pressures are prone to air leaks, which was the origin of barotrauma.[4] Actually, VILI was synonymous with barotrauma for many years.
He was diagnosed with colonic barotrauma secondary to insufflation of jet air through the rectum causing tension pneumoperitoneum.
Studies show that the approximate risk of developing barotrauma in patients on mechanical ventilation is 4%-15%, with a 14%-87% incidence of pneumothorax depending on duration and severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and mode of ventilator for management23.
Esteban et al., "Incidence, risk factors and outcome of barotrauma in mechanically ventilated patients," Intensive Care Medicine, vol.
Ergozen describes a patient with subconjunctival hemorrhage associated with ocular barotrauma resulting from the use of swimming goggles during breath-hold diving, and presents preventative measures that can be taken to avoid this traumatic side effect of pressure changes while diving (see pages 296-297).
The majority of otherwise healthy patients are capable to successfully compensate for these changes, but obese patients and those with chronic respiratory diseases are susceptible to development of numerous complications such as intraoperative hypoxia, barotrauma and volutrauma during laparoscopic procedures (1).
The spectrum of etiologies for pneumopericardium is broad, including trauma, complications of procedures, fistulization from adjacent structures, barotrauma, and pericardial infections [3].
Patients on mechanical ventilation should have pressures minimized to reduce risk of barotrauma [32].
Despite the two different modes of consumption, the underlying pathophysiology for mediastinal air in ecstasy abuse is barotrauma rather than a direct pharmacological mechanism.[R] Drug inhalation is associated with valsalva manoeuvres such as prolonged breath holding, coughing and physical exertion.
(10) Rare cases of pneumocephalus secondary to barotrauma incurred while scuba diving, (11) flying, (12) and driving over mountain ranges (13) also have been reported.