They also postulated that when the monsoon is strong, a zonally elongated lower-tropospheric baroclinic zone (hereafter LTBZ) is pronounced over the Japan Sea.
As already introduced in Section 1, the area characterized by high EGR values over the Japan Sea is hereafter called the lower-tropospheric baroclinic zone (LTBZ).
The MOD run also exhibits decreases in the cyclone track frequency, the 850 hPa poleward eddy heat flux, and the local deepening rate (LDR), which are appropriate measures of synoptic-scale cyclone activity, in the regions downstream of the Changbai Mountain, concurrent with the weakened lower-tropospheric baroclinic zone (LTBZ).
1996), whereas for other cyclones, the intense surface fronts develop only during cyclone intensification in an initially broad baroclinic zone (e.g., Mudrick 1974; Hobbs et al.
The shift away from the frontal discontinuity as the origin of cyclogenesis was supported by the theory of baroclinic instability (Charney 1947; Eady 1949), which explained the generation of extratropical cyclones in initially broad baroclinic zones without well-marked surface fronts.
Hoffman, 2011: Surface fronts, troughs, and baroclinic zones in the Great Lakes region.
Geostrophic absolute momentum is defined as [M.sub.g] = [V.sub.g] + fx, where [V.sub.g] is the geostrophic wind along the baroclinic zone, f is the Coriolis parameter, and x is the distance across the front.
The LMTN experiment resulted in a weaker baroclinic zone and there was a significant decrease in snowfall accumulations.
Furthermore, a long eastwest surface baroclinic zone
extended from eastern Canada westward into Colorado (see broad swath of east-west-oriented clouds in Fig.
Sanders argued that many baroclinic zones (regions of locally enhanced horizontal temperature gradient) were not fronts, and that fronts were characterized by both temperature gradients and "considerable" wind shifts (e.g., Sanders 1999a, p.
Gridded analyses of the magnitude of the horizontal gradient of the surface temperature data over the United States were used to perform climatologies of baroclinic zones (Sanders and Hoffman 2002; Hoffman 2008).
High-resolution data with lots of structure will produce large magnitudes of gradients, so a unique threshold for such baroclinic zones independent of resolution is challenging.