Lodde and colleagues (2001) found in a prospective study of patients with UTUC that voided urine cytology has a false negative rate of up to 50%, while barbotage
of the ureter with selective sampling increased the detection rate to 82%.
There was no significant difference among the specimen types (voided urine, bladder barbotage
, and catheterized urine; P = .68).
The circulation between the input and output points appears due to the difference of level between each consecutive tanks, due to the fact that the substances are introduced continuously in the tanks and due to the fact that each tank is equipped with a barbotage
system (system that assures the chemical homogenization, too).
Cytology can be performed on voided urine or bladder wash (barbotage
) during cystoscopy; however, the EAU guidelines recommend performing cytology on voided urine, unless a bladder wash is performed at the time of cystoscopy.
Brisement involves the high volume injection of saline or local anaesthetic to try and break down adhesions and barbotage
involves the alternate injection and withdrawal of fluid with a syringe in the treatment of calcific tendonitis.
In those undergoing caesarean section, when free flow of CSF was observed, 1.2 to 2.5 ml 0.75% (7.5 mg/ml) hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 [micro]g fentanyl was injected slowly intrathecally, with intermittent barbotage
(10), an epidural catheter inserted in a cephalad direction, routine tests performed on the epidural catheter to exclude intrathecal or intravenous misplacement and, following a test dose of 3 ml lignocaine 2% containing adrenaline 1:200,000, a definitive dose (7 to 10 ml) of bupivacaine 0.5% (5.0 mg/ml) was injected epidurally.
The absorption of vapour-gas mixture containing N[H.sub.3], C[O.sub.2] and steam in the above mentioned proportion takes place in a countercurrent barbotage
The anaesthetic solution was injected over 10 to 15 seconds without barbotage
The patient undergoes cystoscopy and bladder barbotage
for cytology 6 weeks later.
Hyperbaric 0.75% bupivacaine 10.5 mg (1.4 ml) was inj ectedwithin 60 seconds without barbotage
through a 25 gauge Whitacre needle, after which an epidural catheter was inserted 3 to 4 cm into the epidural space.