urethral melanoma: differential diagnosis and management.
The ICD-O classification includes further morphological codes, such as balloon cell
M, regressing M, amelanotic M, M in junctional nevus, M in precancerous melanosis, desmoplastic M, neurotropic M, mucosal lentiginous M, M in giant pigmented nevus/congenital melanocytic nevus, mixed epithelioid and spindle cell M, epithelioid cell M, spindle cell M (not otherwise specified), spindle cell M (type A), spindle cell M (type B), and malignant blue nevus (3).
de Weger, "Cutaneous malignant melanomas in 57 cats: identification of (amelanotic) signet-ring and balloon cell
types and verification of their origin by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and in situ hybridization," Veterinary Pathology, vol.
The differential diagnostic considerations of a clear cell lesion in the skin are broad and include melanocytic lesions (balloon cell nevus or balloon cell melanoma), epithelial neoplasms (benign adnexal neoplasm and carcinoma with clear cells), xanthomas, and various mesenchymal neoplasms (eg, perivascular epithelioid cell tumor or clear cell sarcoma; Table 1).
Balloon cell nevi (Figure 4, A) and cellular blue nevi (Figure 4, B) may be distinguished from CCM using the same criteria that distinguish nevi from conventional melanoma, such as the absence of both nuclear atypia and dermal mitoses.
Metastatic balloon cell malignant melanoma: a case report and literature review.
Macroscopic differential diagnosis are angioma, cutaneous horn and basal cell carcinoma.3 Mostly, RCC with cutaneous metastases are clear cell type, so microscopic differential diagnosis are xanthoma, xanthelasma, sebaceous tumours, balloon cell
nevus, clear cell hydradenoma and other skin lesions characterized by the presence of clear cells.3 The performing of IHC techniques makes it possible to conduct differential diagnosis.3 EMA, CEA, CD-10 and RCC- MA are all markers that suggest skin metastases of renal origin.3
Caption: Figure 2: Two-dimensional model of balloon cells
His viral culture was negative for VZV and HSV Histopathologic examination revealed an intraepidermal vesicle containing balloon cells
and multinucleated epithelial cells with reticular degeneration and a dense infiltration of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and neutrophils around the vesicle and superficial blood vessels.
Conjunctival melanoma can be composed of 1 (or different proportions) of 4 different cell types: small polyhedral cells, epithelioid cells, balloon cells
, and spindle cells.
Balloon Cells.--Balloon cells are swollen, pale, periodic acid-Schiff-negative cells with irregular pyknotic nuclei developing in the epithelial midzone (Figure 1, A).
Histologically one sees subepithelial edema, thickening of the stratum corneum, and the presence of balloon cells. The presence of balloon cells serves as an early esophageal mucosal marker of chemical injury but is not specific for it.