toxin

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Related to bacterial toxins: Exotoxins

toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

tox·in

(tok'sin),
A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated either as an integral part of the cell or tissue (endotoxin), as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination of the two, during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

(tŏk′sĭn)
n.
1. A poisonous substance, especially a protein, that is produced by living cells or organisms and is capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues but is often also capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies or antitoxins.
2. A poisonous or harmful nonbiological substance, such as a pollutant.

toxin

A poison or noxious thing produced by animals, plants, or bacteria. See Amatoxin, Anaphylatoxin, Bacterial toxin, Batrachotoxin, Biotoxin, Botulinum toxin, Bungarotoxin, Coley's toxin, Endotoxin, Exotoxin, Heat-stable toxin, Immunotoxin, Lethal toxin, Middle molecule toxin, Neurotoxin, Phallotoxin, Picrotoxin, Recombinant toxin, Rhizotoxin, Shiga neurotoxin, Tetanospasmin.

tox·in

(tok'sin)
1. A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated as an integral part of the cell or tissue, as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination of the two during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
2. A common misnomer for poison.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

Any substance produced by a living organism that is poisonous to other organisms. Bacterial disease is largely the result of poisoning by the toxins they produce. Some bacteria release soluble exotoxins that act remotely. Others produce only endotoxins which operate only locally. Some bacterial toxins are among the most poisonous substances known.

toxin

a nonenzymic metabolite of one organism which is injurious to another organism. see TETANUS, BOTULISM.

Toxin

A poison. In the case of scarlet fever, the toxin is secreted as a byproduct of the growth of the streptococcus bacteria and causes a rash.

tox·in

(tok'sin)
Noxious or poisonous substance formed or elaborated either as an integral part of the cell or tissue (endotoxin), as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination, during metabolism and growth of some microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
[G. toxikon, poison]
References in periodicals archive ?
The first membrane-damaging bacterial toxin was described by Paul Ehrlich in 1898 [8], who found that Clostridium tetani extracts lyse erythrocytes.
Host-pathogen interactions encountered in Gram-negative organisms at close interface with eukaryotic cells have been recently linked with the bacterial type HI secretion system (T3SS) and OMV-associated export of bacterial toxins (30-32).
Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is a further bacterial toxin that ADP-ribosylates eEF2 at the diphthamide (13).
In fact you can get the condition from anything that allows bacterial toxins to enter the body through the skin.
Both had been getting botox injections to hide the advance of age; when an unscrupulous physician allowed them to receive improperly diluted treatment, and then lied to them about their symptoms, both of them suffered acutely as bacterial toxins paralyzed their bodies, leaving them unable to breathe unassisted.
In 15 essays she describes the germ theory of disease, bacterial toxins that work as insecticides, the baculovirus gene expression system, the curious case of the rhinoceros beetle, the war of bug against bug in invertebrate antibiotics, diseases of edible shellfish, the link between crustaceans and cholera, the mighty nematodes, diseases and parasites of bees, the fungus among us, insect symbiotic organisms, and the thread, including the possibilities for cures for human diseases, that ties all these curiosities together.
Unfortunately, these plates are all in 1 section and require the reader to page back and forth from specific chapters to the "core color plates." This book is not a compendium of bacterial toxins and virulence factors but rather a selection of molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction.
Medina's semi-automated method will be able to detect several bacterial toxins in a single food sample.
Biopesticides (plant extracts and bacterial toxins) spray operation at the Tsunami affected areas of Tamil Nadu such as Velankanni, Nagapattinam and Cuddalore, and Pondicherry, India for the control of mosquito, flies, and other diseases causing microorganisms.
Other CRD products are being developed that promote viral clearance and the elimination of bacterial toxins. The company is also developing an HDL drug carrier technology that will enable a drug payload to be carried to specific target areas in the body, such as cancerous tissue.
Plant-made vaccines are especially beneficial because plants are free of human diseases, reducing the cost to screen for viruses and bacterial toxins.
Schwartz is examining the genes and genomic responses involved in the immune response to bacterial toxins such as endotoxin, which are released into the bloodstream during bacterial infection and can, in themselves, cause a variety of symptoms.