toxin

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toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

tox·in

(tok'sin),
A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated either as an integral part of the cell or tissue (endotoxin), as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination of the two, during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

/tox·in/ (tok´sin) a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by some higher plants, certain animals, and pathogenic bacteria, that is highly poisonous for other living organisms.
bacterial toxins  toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, and toxic enzymes.
botulinal toxin , botulinum toxin, botulinus toxin an exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum that produces paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine in the central nervous system; there are seven immunologically distinct types (A–G). Type A is used therapeutically to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, as well as to treat wrinkles of the upper face; type B is used to treat cervical dystonia.
clostridial toxin  one produced by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulinus, gas gangrene, and tetanus.
diphtheria toxin  a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheritic infection; it is an enzyme that inhibits protein synthesis.
erythrogenic toxin  streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin.
extracellular toxin  exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin  an exotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens that causes gas gangrene; at least 10 types have been identified.
intracellular toxin  endotoxin.
tetanus toxin  the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin) .

toxin

(tŏk′sĭn)
n.
1. A poisonous substance, especially a protein, that is produced by living cells or organisms and is capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues but is often also capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies or antitoxins.
2. A poisonous or harmful nonbiological substance, such as a pollutant.

toxin

[tok′sin]
a poison, usually one produced by or occurring in a plant or microorganism. See also endotoxin, exotoxin.

toxin

A poison or noxious thing produced by animals, plants, or bacteria. See Amatoxin, Anaphylatoxin, Bacterial toxin, Batrachotoxin, Biotoxin, Botulinum toxin, Bungarotoxin, Coley's toxin, Endotoxin, Exotoxin, Heat-stable toxin, Immunotoxin, Lethal toxin, Middle molecule toxin, Neurotoxin, Phallotoxin, Picrotoxin, Recombinant toxin, Rhizotoxin, Shiga neurotoxin, Tetanospasmin.

tox·in

(tok'sin)
1. A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated as an integral part of the cell or tissue, as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination of the two during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
2. A common misnomer for poison.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

Any substance produced by a living organism that is poisonous to other organisms. Bacterial disease is largely the result of poisoning by the toxins they produce. Some bacteria release soluble exotoxins that act remotely. Others produce only endotoxins which operate only locally. Some bacterial toxins are among the most poisonous substances known.

toxin

a nonenzymic metabolite of one organism which is injurious to another organism. see TETANUS, BOTULISM.

Toxin

A poison. In the case of scarlet fever, the toxin is secreted as a byproduct of the growth of the streptococcus bacteria and causes a rash.

toxin

noxious/poisonous substance within a cell (endotoxin) or an extracellular product (exotoxin)
  • botulinum toxin; Botox potent neurotoxin (from Clostridium botulinum ) causing muscle paralysis; used therapeutically to ease muscle contracture, e.g. subsequent to upper motor neurone lesions

  • tetanus toxin potent neurotoxin from Clostridium tetani ; causes characteristic rigid muscle paralysis of tetanus

toxin,

n poisonous material that is synthesized or derived from an animal, mineral, or plant.

tox·in

(tok'sin)
Noxious or poisonous substance formed or elaborated either as an integral part of the cell or tissue (endotoxin), as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination, during metabolism and growth of some microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin (tok´sin),

n a poisonous protein made by specific animals, higher levels of plants, and disease-causing bacteria.

toxin

a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, some higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Antigenic toxins, produced by bacteria or helminths, stimulate production of antitoxins. Exotoxins are produced by bacteria and diffuse into surroundings, e.g. tetanus toxin, or can be ingested preformed, e.g. botulinum toxin. Endotoxins are released into the surrounding tissue only when the bacteria break down. They are lipopolysaccharides and form part of the cell wall, e.g. coliform endotoxins. Metabolic toxins, e.g. toxic amines absorbed from damaged intestine, ketones, lactic acid from carbohydrate engorgement, ammonia in liver damage, creatinine in renal dysfunction. See also metabolic toxins.

dermonecrotic toxin
an exotoxin produced by certain bacteria that causes extensive local necrosis on intradermal inoculation.
extracellular toxin
exotoxin.
intracellular toxin
endotoxin.
tetanus toxin
the potent neurotoxic exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Called also tetanospasmin.
References in periodicals archive ?
OMVs liberated from the secretion-active Salmonella 3,10:r:-, have been proposed to be released by pinching off inflated periplasmic organelles filled with bacterial toxins (8) and exoproteins secreted by the general secretory pathway (GSP) (27).
He is currently developing a high-throughput worm genome-wide microarray to screen compounds and develop signature profiles of response to a variety of toxicants, including bacterial toxins, chemicals, metals, and alkylating agents.
Gordon et al [25,26] have speculated that the protective effect of breast milk could in part be attributable to the binding effects of IgA on bacterial toxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin C and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A, implicated in some cases of SIDS.
We report here the presence of G-proteins in Y-organs and thoracic ganglia as determined by ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by bacterial toxins.
Most diarrhea is due to dietary indiscretions; food poisoning with bacterial toxins or viruses, or infection with toxigenic Eschericia coli.
The following chapter in intriguingly entitled undesirables but it deals with endogenous toxins of plant foods, endogenous toxins of animal foods, mycotoxins bacterial toxins, toxic agricultural residues, toxic metal residues and toxins generated during heat treatment of food.
Over $12 million were granted for biodefense research by DARPA and NIAID for the development of therapeutics against a broad family of bacterial toxins, the superantigens.
Laboratory tests show that pure hypochlorous acid has potent antimicrobial activity in solution yet is non-toxic to mammalian cells and it also neutralises bacterial toxins.
To enable a possible clinical translation of monobody-based therapeutics, we will develop methods to deliver monobody proteins into cells, including cell-penetrating peptides, bacterial toxins and biocompatible nanocarriers.
Extracts from bracts stopped the bacteria responsible for these dental conditions from being able to stick to surfaces and prevented the release of some bacterial toxins.
Their topics include microbial pathogenesis and the discovery of toll-like receptor function, modified bacterial toxins, microparticles and DNA vaccines.
Exposure to allergens ranging from bacterial toxins to salivary and fecal antigens from cockroaches has been implicated, and using wood, coal, or gas to heat or cook indoors is also known to trigger attacks.