Caption: Photo "bacterial conjugation
" by Charles Brinton "Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine."
of Microbiology, IPGME&R D3 Escherichia coli from HiMedia Sensitive X-Pert Bacterial Conjugation
([Str.sup.S]) Kit HTM004-5PR Recipient Strains R1 Genetically engineered Resistant Sensitive Escherichia coli 2443 obtained ([Str.sup.R]) ([Ctx.sup.S]) from Dept.
is one of the most widely used mechanisms for studying the phenomenon of resistance (antibiotics or heavy metals) in bacteria.
: a Potential Tool for Genomic engineering.
coli cloning and expression vectors, archaeal plasmids, plasmid-based expression systems for mammalian cells, bioinformatics tools and methods for plasmid sequence analysis and annotation, horizontal gene transfer mediated by plasmids, molecular machinery for DNA translocation in bacterial conjugation
, plasmids for gene therapy, and plasmid DNA as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for cancer and infectious diseases.
The collective term "genetically modified organisms," or GMOs, is used frequently in regulatory documents and in the scientific literature to describe "plants, animals and microorganisms which have had DNA introduced into them by means other than by combination of an egg and a sperm or by natural bacterial conjugation
" (Institute of Food Science & Technology, 2004).