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Related to baclofen: Tizanidine


an analogue of γ-aminobutyric acid administered orally or intrathecally as a muscle relaxant and antispastic in the treatment of spasticity of spinal origin, such as multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury. It is also used intrathecally to treat spasticity of cerebral origin, such as trauma to the brain or cerebral palsy.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


Apo-Baclofen (CA), Baclofen, Gen-Baclofen (CA), Kemstro, Lioresal, Lioresal Intrathecal, Liotec (CA), Lyflex (UK), Nu-Baclo (CA), PMS-Baclofen (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Skeletal muscle relaxant

Therapeutic class: Antispasmodic

Pregnancy risk category C

FDA Box Warning

• With intrathecal form, abrupt withdrawal may cause high fever, altered mental status, exaggerated rebound spasticity, and muscle rigidity; in rare cases, patient progresses to rhabdomyolysis, multisystem failure, and death. To prevent abrupt withdrawal, pay careful attention to programming and monitoring of infusion system, refill scheduling and procedures, and pump alarms. Advise patients and caregivers of importance of keeping scheduled refill visits, and teach about early drug withdrawal symptoms. Give special attention to patients at apparent risk (those with spinal cord injuries at T6 or above, communication problems, or history of withdrawal symptoms from oral or intrathecal baclofen).


Relaxes muscles by acting specifically at spinal end of upper motor neurons


Intrathecal injection: 10 mg/20 ml (500 mcg/ml), 10 mg/5 ml (2,000 mcg/ml)

Tablets: 10 mg, 20 mg

Indications and dosages

Reversible spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis or spinal cord lesions

Adults: Initially, 5 mg P.O. t.i.d. May increase by 5 mg q 3 days to a maximum dosage of 80 mg/day.

Children ages 4 and older: 25 to 1,200 mcg/day by intrathecal infusion; (average is 275 mcg/day); dosage determined by response during screening phase.

Severe spasticity in patients who don't respond to or can't tolerate oral baclofen

Adults: Screening phase-Before pump implantation and intrathecal infusion, give test dose to check responsiveness. Administer 1 ml of 50 mcg/ml dilution over 1 minute by barbotage into intrathecal space. Within 4 to 8 hours, muscle spasms should become less severe or frequent and muscle tone should decrease; if patient's response is inadequate, give second test dose of 75 mcg/1.5 ml 24 hours after first dose. If patient is still unresponsive, may give final test dose of 100 mcg/2 ml 24 hours later. Patients unresponsive to 100-mcg dose aren't candidates for intrathecal baclofen. Following appropriate responsiveness, adjust dosage to twice the screening dose and give over 24 hours. If screening dose efficacy is maintained for 12 hours, don't double the dosage. After 24 hours, increase dosage slowly as needed and tolerated by 10% to 30% daily.

Maintenance therapy-During prolonged maintenance therapy, adjust daily dosage by 10% to 40% as needed and tolerated to maintain adequate control of symptoms. Maintenance dosage ranges from 12 mcg to 2,000 mcg daily.

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

• Seizure disorders

• Elderly patients

Off-label uses

• Cerebral palsy

• Tardive dyskinesia

• Trigeminal neuralgia


• Hypersensitivity to drug

• Rheumatic disorders


Use cautiously in:

• renal impairment

• epilepsy

• patients who use spasticity to maintain posture and balance

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.


• Give oral doses with food or milk.

• Dilute only with sterile, preservative-free sodium chloride for injection.

• Know that intrathecal infusion should be performed only by personnel who have been trained in the procedure.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, confusion, depression, headache, insomnia, hypotonia, difficulty speaking, seizures

CV: edema, hypotension, hypertension, palpitations

EENT: blurred vision, tinnitus, nasal congestion

GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation

GU: urinary frequency, dysuria, erectile dysfunction

Metabolic: hyperglycemia

Skin: pruritus, rash, sweating

Other: weight gain, hypersensitivity reactions


Drug-drug. CNS depressants: increased baclofen effect

MAO inhibitors: increased CNS depression, hypotension

Tricyclic antidepressants, drugs causing

CNS depression: hypotonia, increased

CNS depression

Drug-diagnostic tests. Alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose: increased levels

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: CNS depression

Patient monitoring

• During intrathecal infusion, check pump often for proper functioning and check catheter for patency.

• Monitor patient's response continually to determine appropriate dosage adjustment.

Observe closely for signs and symptoms of overdose (drowsiness, light-headedness, dizziness, respiratory depression), especially during initial screening and titration. No specific antidote exists. Immediately remove any solution from pump; if patient has respiratory depression, intubate until drug is eliminated.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take oral dose with food or milk.

• Instruct patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.

• Caution patient not to discontinue drug therapy abruptly. Doing so may cause hallucinations and rebound spasticity.

• Advise patient to avoid alcohol and other depressants such as sedatives while taking drug.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and behaviors mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


A drug, C10H12ClNO2, that acts as a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonist and is used to treat muscle spasticity, especially in patients with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injuries.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


A GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) antagonist used to decrease recalcitrant spinal spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis, spinal-cord injury and possibly also Parkinson’s disease.
Adverse effects
Vomiting, weakness, drowsiness, slow breathing, seizures, coma.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.


Lioresal® Neurology A GABA antagonist used to ↓ recalcitrant spinal spasticity in Pts with multiple sclerosis, spinal-cord injury, and possibly also Parkinson's disease
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A drug derived from the NEUROTRANSMITTER GABA that interferes with nerve transmission in the spinal cord and relaxes muscle spasm. It is used to alleviate the effects of conditions such as STROKE and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. A brand name is Lioresal.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005


An analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) used orally to treat skeletal muscle spasm and in the management of nystagmus, particularly periodic alternating nystagmus.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann
References in periodicals archive ?
Baclofen is the most effective and commonly used medicine to reduce spasticity or abnormal tightness of muscles that commonly occurs in people with spinal-cord injuries, traumatic brain injuries and cerebral palsy.
The following drugs were used in these experiments: morphine sulfate (TEMAD, Iran), baclofen and CGP35348 (Novartis Basel, Switzerland), Ketamine hydrochloride and Xylazine (Alfasan Worden, Holland).
In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N = 39), baclofen was superior to placebo in suppressing obsessive aspects of cravings and decreasing state anxiety (11) Baclofen, 10 mg 3 times daily, in another randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (n = 42) reduced the number of drinks per day by 53% vs placebo; 20 mg 3 times a day resulted in a 68% reduction in drinks per day vs placebo.
In this study, a meta-analysis of relevant RCTs [12-20] was performed to support the clinical efficacy and safety of baclofen for the treatment of GERD.
Baclofen refers to a muscle relaxant medicine, which is commonly used to treat spasticity, and intrathecal spinal cord Baclofen device implantation surgery is an effective therapy for the management of spastic paralysis.
At presentation, a 32-year-old woman with a history of severe spastic tetraplegic cerebral palsy with dystonia was being managed with oral baclofen and botulinum toxin injections.
Compared with those of the control group, mechanical PWT and PWTL of rats in the DNP, DNP + SN50, DNP + MIP, DNP + LPS-RS, DNP + baclofen, and DNP + saclofen groups were significantly decreased at 14 days and 21 days.
He was switched to a baclofen taper with a starting dose of 5 mg three times a day for two days.
The key asset is Gablofen (baclofen injection), a product approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in management of severe spasticity of cerebral or spinal origin in adult and pediatric patients age 4 years and above.
* Release of a puzzling array of conflicting studies on the use of high-dose baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence.
Options include medications like bromocriptine or baclofen with or without surface or intravascular cooling devices [9, 19-22].
Baclofen, a medication that relaxes muscles via the central nervous system, is the most common medication for spasticity.