(2016) found signal artifacts in the free troposphere in CL31 attenuated backscatter
profiles, characterized by negative values in cloud-free regions due to a shift of the raw data introduced by the system firmware, and developed a method to quantify these artifacts and correct for them.
Dobson, "Microwave backscatter
dependence on surface roughness, soil moisture, and soil texture: part I-bare soil," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience Electronics, vol.
where [[beta].sub.m] and [[beta].sub.p] are the molecular and particle backscatter
devices consists of an antenna, a switching transistor and a load capacitance.
Lee, "Evaluation of ADCP backscatter
inversion to suspended sediment concentration in estuarine environments," Ocean Science Journal, vol.
Point and area densitometry, a built-in software of Pentacam, displays results on the densitogram, enabling the measurements of structural backscatters
in any desired points of the images taken.
MacLennan et al., 2002) was used to identify backscatter
consistent with that of fishes with swim bladders.
[beta] is the backscatter
coefficient (in units of [m.sup.-1] [ster.sup.-1]), and [alpha] is the extinction coefficient (in units of [m.sup.-1]).
A portion PS of the source flux invades the channel after crossing across the source-channel barrier in which a portion PC of the flux entered into the channel flowed across and depart from the drain and a left portion BC =1 - PC backscatters
from the channel and turn back into the source.
Researchers claim Wi-Fi backscatter
tag can communicate with a Wi-Fi device at rates of 1kbps with about 2 meters between the devices.
X-rays interact with low-density objects like most organic matter, they detect the radiation reflecting from the objects and emit white images, he said.
The present study aimed to develop a QUS method using a pulse-echo technique to extract five parameters: apparent integrated backscatter
(AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter
(FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter
(TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR) by processing ultrasonic backscattered
and reflection echoes to characterize cortical and trabecular bone from healthy bone diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo.