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; history, observation, examination mnemonic for assessment of musculoskeletal symptoms (Table 1)
Table 1: The history, observation, examination (HOE) model for assessment of patients with musculoskeletal symptoms
HistoryBiographical information
General medical history (such as duration of symptoms/disease, medications, disease activity markers)
Presenting symptoms - pain maps, patient-completed baseline health outcome measures)
ObservationNon-weight-bearingMusculoskeletal system/disease state:
  • Limb alignment

  • Joint/soft-tissue swelling

  • Dermal signs

Presenting complaint:
  • Dimensions and numbers of visible lesions

  • Record of tender/swollen joints

Footwear assessment
  • Suitability

  • Wear patterns

  • Distortion of uppers

Weight-bearingLimb alignment
  • Joint/limb segment alignment

  • Foot posture at relaxed calcaneal stance

Comparison with non-weight-bearing observations
Observation of gait
ExaminationProvocation of symptoms/pain
  • Palpation

  • Active motion

  • Passive motion

Systematic palpation and movement of structures, from proximal to distal
  • Bony structures

  • Joints

  • Soft tissues

  • Radiograph

  • Magnetic resonance imaging

  • HRUS

HRUS, high-resolution ultrasound.


n an angled instrument with the broad dimension of its blade perpendicular to the axis of the shank of the shaft.
References in periodicals archive ?
The same night he got a call from the JCB office notifying him that the backhoe loaders were located more than 900km away in a yard in Riyadh.
If you want to read about the backhoe driver's blood-curdling account of the massacre, go to http://newsinfo.
This is because, typically, a backhoe, being a general machine, can be said to be substituted by two important pieces of specialist kit -- the skid-steer or compact track loader (CTL) and the mini excavator.
Operators have also acquired a better understanding of the possibilities our tractor backhoe loader offers, its performance and high productivity," he added, speaking about the demonstration of the new machine by Case experts and the interactions between them and customers.
In recent times, significant growth of the construction industry is a major driver of global backhoe loader market because it is this growth in the construction industry that is generating a huge demand for backhoe loaders for performing various tasks.
Arun Kumar, sales manager at Motorcity-Commercial, the distributor of Hyundai Heavy Industries in Bahrain, said: "We are launching the new Hyundai Backhoe Loader to support construction projects with a more powerful and aggressive all-rounder performer.
In addition, the new Hyundai backhoe loader offers excellent visibility, easier serviceability and ensures operator safety, the statement added.
JCB chief executive Alan Blake said it is an important deal for JCB, adding: "It is huge testament to the quality and versatility of JCB's backhoe loaders and it's fantastic to win an order of this size as we celebrate 60 years of backhoe loader production this year.
The South American country''s Ministry of Agrarian Development has signed a tender for 1,000 JCB backhoes worth more than PS40m.
Around the farm, you might put a backhoe to use digging holes for large-diameter anchor posts or pole-barn posts.
The new JCB backhoe loaders are described as the most efficient ever, offering average fuel savings ranging from six to 16% at typical daily work rates.
The Queen's Award for Innovation has been handed to JCB in Wrexham for developing a product called TorqueLock which is fitted to the company's biggest selling product, the backhoe loader.