backbone

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spine

 [spīn]
1. a thornlike process or projection; called also acantha and spina.
2. the rigid bony structure in the midline of the back, composed of the vertebrae; called also backbone, spinal column, and vertebral column.



The spinal column is the axis of the skeleton; the skull and limbs are in a sense appendages. The vertebrae also provide the protective bony corridor (spinal canal) through which the spinal cord passes; they can move to a certain extent and so give flexibility to the spine, allowing it to bend forward, sideways and, to a lesser extent, backward. In the areas of the neck and lower back, the spine also can pivot, which permits the turning of the head and torso.

There are usually 24 movable vertebrae and nine that are fused together. The topmost are the seven cervical vertebrae, which form the back of the neck, supporting the skull. The head turns from side to side by means of a pivotal motion between the two highest vertebrae. Below these are the 12 thoracic vertebrae, the supports on which the ribs are hinged, and then the five lumbar vertebrae, the largest movable vertebrae (the cervical are the smallest). Below the lumbar vertebrae, the spine terminates with two groups of vertebrae fused into single bones: the sacrum, composed of five vertebrae, and the coccyx, composed of four vertebrae. Viewed from the side of the body, the spine has the shape of a gentle double S curve.
Malformations of the Spine. Of the various types of spinal malformations, some are congenital and others the result of postural defects or injuries. spina bifida is congenital. kyphosis may occasionally be congenital but is more often caused by one of the diseases that attack the structure of the bones. The most common of these is pott's disease, or tuberculosis affecting the vertebrae and soft tissues of the spine. Another is osteitis deformans, a type of bone inflammation in which parts of the bone are replaced by softer tissue. scoliosis is a curvature of the spine toward one side.
cervical spine that portion of the spine comprising the cervical vertebrae.
lumbar spine that portion of the spine comprising the lumbar vertebrae.
thoracic spine that part of the spine comprising the thoracic vertebrae.

ver·te·bral col·umn

[TA]
the series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord.

backbone

(băk′bōn′)
n.
1. The vertebrate spine or spinal column.
2. Chemistry The main chain of atoms in a polymer.

back′boned′ adj.

backbone

the vertebral column.

backbone

Vox populi Vertebral column, see there.

ver·te·bral col·umn

(vĕr'tĕ-brăl kol'ŭm) [TA]
The series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord.
Synonym(s): columna vertebralis [TA] , backbone, rachis, spina, spinal column, spine (2) .

backbone

The vertebral column or spine.

backbone

see VERTEBRAL COLUMN.

backbone

the vertebral column.

Patient discussion about backbone

Q. Anyone have knowledge of cancer in the spine? Doctors think my 40 year old brother has. My brother has been undergoing test and treatnment for back problems since a vehicle accident in August. The did a test last week and Monday said they saw 4 nodules they think are cancer, his doctor said everytime he had seen this it was cancer. I am devestated right now but trying to stay positive. I am sure you will notice it on the site b/c I know it is affecting me and the stress and worry has the fibromyalgia kicking in at full speed:-( PLEASE anything you can tell me would be a help!

A. Thank you for the answer and the prayers!

Q. I have hurt my cervical spine and shoulder in a rear end car crash in July. Why does it still hurt?

A. Spine and back injuries are known to to be causing a lot of pain and discomfort and for a long period of time. You should try and do some mellow exercise and physiotherapy that might help you a lot. If the pain is unbarable, you should consult your doctor about using pain medications.

Q. Has anyone had a spine fusion that failed? Or hardware that failed?

A. Haven't experienced it myself, but here (http://www.spine-health.com/forum/treatments/back-surgery-and-neck-surgery) you may find a discussion about it.

More discussions about backbone
References in periodicals archive ?
While monitoring high-level, backbone-to-backbone traffic has been historically difficult, in May Keynote introduced a real-time reporting system on peering point and backbone latency.
By implementing a storage network backbone, enterprises of all kinds can harness the efficiency of a consolidated storage environment, enabling a long-term strategic approach to architecting storage networks.
The Ericsson AXI 520 and 580 IP backbone routers are built to deliver highly reliable, scalable, and cost-efficient IP services across high-speed networks.
txt)), allows the service provider to take full advantage of the inherent benefits of an MPLS backbone such as traffic engineering and bandwidth guarantees.
With seven major backbone networks already choosing to locate their core peering operations at Equinix, combined with the more than 65 leading networks already participating in IBX centers, Equinix is emerging as the unequivocal leader in Internet exchange services, making Equinix IBX centers the most attractive hubs for other networks and Internet businesses to locate their operations," said Van Camp.
Internap's unique approach to Internet connectivity compliments ISWest's network infrastructure and adds to the existing two backbone providers, Level 3 (NASDAQ:LVLT) and Global Crossing (NYSE:GX)," commented Drew Kaplan, director of sales & marketing for ISWest.
Based on market data and initial interest by some key customers - combined with Diveo's reputation as a world-class Internet infrastructure provider - we expect IP Transit to be a very popular backbone connectivity solution for ISPs and carriers throughout the region," said David Rutchik, President IP Business & EVP Corporate Development for Diveo Broadband Networks.
The backbone uses the submarine cable TAT14, a connection between New York and Paris, operating at a 10Gpbs rate through Cisco Internet routers.
In expanding ChinaNet, China Telecom strengthened its cooperation with major ISPs both at home and abroad to realize interconnection between ChinaNet and other major Internet backbones.
Performance data of peering relationships between bandwidth providers remains largely enigmatic, but by adding AT&T and Level 3 and increasing the number of backbones measured, the Keynote Internet Health Report gives a broader, more accurate assessment of backbone relationships and the performance quality of the Internet as a whole.
Together these international backbones connect seven of Diveo's operations allowing the company to offer a robust fiber network to its customers and scale its operations to offer the highest degree of network efficiency.
With Cisco 12000 Series Internet Routers forming the core of their IP backbones, Asia Pacific service providers are able to easily upgrade their networks with higher speeds and differentiated services to meet the growing needs of businesses and private customers.