backbone


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

spine

 [spīn]
1. a thornlike process or projection; called also acantha and spina.
2. the rigid bony structure in the midline of the back, composed of the vertebrae; called also backbone, spinal column, and vertebral column.



The spinal column is the axis of the skeleton; the skull and limbs are in a sense appendages. The vertebrae also provide the protective bony corridor (spinal canal) through which the spinal cord passes; they can move to a certain extent and so give flexibility to the spine, allowing it to bend forward, sideways and, to a lesser extent, backward. In the areas of the neck and lower back, the spine also can pivot, which permits the turning of the head and torso.

There are usually 24 movable vertebrae and nine that are fused together. The topmost are the seven cervical vertebrae, which form the back of the neck, supporting the skull. The head turns from side to side by means of a pivotal motion between the two highest vertebrae. Below these are the 12 thoracic vertebrae, the supports on which the ribs are hinged, and then the five lumbar vertebrae, the largest movable vertebrae (the cervical are the smallest). Below the lumbar vertebrae, the spine terminates with two groups of vertebrae fused into single bones: the sacrum, composed of five vertebrae, and the coccyx, composed of four vertebrae. Viewed from the side of the body, the spine has the shape of a gentle double S curve.
Malformations of the Spine. Of the various types of spinal malformations, some are congenital and others the result of postural defects or injuries. spina bifida is congenital. kyphosis may occasionally be congenital but is more often caused by one of the diseases that attack the structure of the bones. The most common of these is pott's disease, or tuberculosis affecting the vertebrae and soft tissues of the spine. Another is osteitis deformans, a type of bone inflammation in which parts of the bone are replaced by softer tissue. scoliosis is a curvature of the spine toward one side.
cervical spine that portion of the spine comprising the cervical vertebrae.
lumbar spine that portion of the spine comprising the lumbar vertebrae.
thoracic spine that part of the spine comprising the thoracic vertebrae.

ver·te·bral col·umn

[TA]
the series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord.

backbone

(băk′bōn′)
n.
1. The vertebrate spine or spinal column.
2. Chemistry The main chain of atoms in a polymer.

back′boned′ adj.

backbone

Vox populi Vertebral column, see there.

ver·te·bral col·umn

(vĕr'tĕ-brăl kol'ŭm) [TA]
The series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord.
Synonym(s): columna vertebralis [TA] , backbone, rachis, spina, spinal column, spine (2) .

backbone

The vertebral column or spine.

backbone

see VERTEBRAL COLUMN.

Patient discussion about backbone

Q. Anyone have knowledge of cancer in the spine? Doctors think my 40 year old brother has. My brother has been undergoing test and treatnment for back problems since a vehicle accident in August. The did a test last week and Monday said they saw 4 nodules they think are cancer, his doctor said everytime he had seen this it was cancer. I am devestated right now but trying to stay positive. I am sure you will notice it on the site b/c I know it is affecting me and the stress and worry has the fibromyalgia kicking in at full speed:-( PLEASE anything you can tell me would be a help!

A. Thank you for the answer and the prayers!

Q. I have hurt my cervical spine and shoulder in a rear end car crash in July. Why does it still hurt?

A. Spine and back injuries are known to to be causing a lot of pain and discomfort and for a long period of time. You should try and do some mellow exercise and physiotherapy that might help you a lot. If the pain is unbarable, you should consult your doctor about using pain medications.

Q. Has anyone had a spine fusion that failed? Or hardware that failed?

A. Haven't experienced it myself, but here (http://www.spine-health.com/forum/treatments/back-surgery-and-neck-surgery) you may find a discussion about it.

More discussions about backbone
References in periodicals archive ?
In December 2035, the Nagsaag to Kabugao 500-kV backbone and the Cebu-Bohol-Leyte 230-kV backbone projects could be finished.
In order to improve the data dissemination in vehicular networks, how to select appropriate backbone nodes and how to fully explore network coding both require further study.
A new method of constructing core backbone grid considering survivability is put forward in this paper.
The only applied force/moment was the one actuation torque applied to the robot tip, which resulted in a constant curvature along the backbone. Then, the vibration was modeled as a static equilibrium configuration plus a vibration around it, for the vibration control algorithm.
TeliaSonera International Carrier owns and operates one of the world's most extensive fiber backbones.
Users pay a monthly fee of between $300 and $1,150 (depending on how much information the radio station needs to store, or how many listeners the station has) or $2,700 a year (the discounted rate for a nonprofit) to link into Backbone's network of music, radio programming and other Internet radio stations.
So that I may the better understand his letter, perhaps he would kindly explain what backbone "we" (a pronoun clearly intended to include himself) displayed in that year.
Hatem Bamatraf, senior vice president of network development at Du, said: "Optical Transport Network along with our own backbone infrastructure using the latest in fibre optic cables will enhance the capacity of the backbone and to the end-users, and also provide enhanced network coverage to 2G and 3G mobile users.
This article compares the performance of several well known algorithms for backbone construction both theoretically and through simulation using the Dominating Set Simulation Suite (DSSS) [2].We present the results of simulations of the following algorithms: MBN-TSA, tree, mesh, span, Minimum Connected Dominating Set (MCDS), marking process (rules 1&2 and rule k) and k- connected dominant set (CDS) k-CDS (k-gossip, KCC, CBCC-I and CBCC-II).
According to traditional conception of polymer science, macromolecules with bigger lateral side chains in backbone are more difficult to form order structures.
"The backbone carries 350 percent of our body weight when we sit at our desks at work, 70 percent when we stand or walk and 10 percent when we sleep," stated Dr.
Brocade Extends Its Industry-leading Backbone-Class Family with the Brocade DCX-4S Backbone