Smartphone addiction and problematic usage is consistently found associated with poor academic performance18 and with psychiatric symptoms, like anxiety, depression and alcohol consumption.14,19 Problematic Smartphone usage is more prevalent among adolescents in Pakistan due tothe provision of a range of entertaining activities like online gaming and social networking apps etc.20 The current study was planned to translate the SAS-SV into Urdu using rigorous back-translation
procedure21 and to examine the psychometric properties of the Urdu version of the scale.
(Eriguchi et al., 2019) The naive back-translation
method enhances the translation performance considerably, but its application for monolingual input is not relevantly valid as established neural machine translation patterns do not differentiate between the genuine parallel corpus and the back translated synthetic parallel one.
In the next step, a back-translation
(Spanish to English and French to English) was carried out in order to assure the quality of translation between source and target languages.
Only one item remained the same, despite the back-translation
Present study employed the Brislin's (1970) back-translation
procedure to translate Machiavellianism (Mach IV; Christie and Geis, 1970) and Moral Integrity Scale (Schlenker, 2006).
I followed the translation and back-translation
procedure recommended by Brislin (1980) to ensure conceptual consistency.
: Have a good look at my face, Dorie!-Your face?
162) believed on the basis of the German back-translation
The next step was to establish a back-translation
(BT) from Polish into English.
was approved by the author of the original FOUR score.
The method has seven stages: 1) translation of the original interview, 2) back-translation
, 3) evaluation of semantic equivalence, 4) preparation of the synthesis version, 5) pre-test in the target population, 6) preparation of the final version, 7) second pre-test in the target population with final impressions provided by specialists in the area.