AZU1 encodes azurocidin, proteinase 3, and neutrophil elastase in a cluster located at the short arm of human chromosome 19 (19p13.3).
Jenne, "Structure of the azurocidin, proteinase 3, and neutrophil elastase genes.
In the presence of cytochalasin D, the secretion of fMLP-treated neutrophils became enriched with the primary granule bactericides (such as MPO, cathepsin G, proteinase 3, CAP37, azurocidin
, and HNP 1-3 or defensins 1-3), but the tertiary granule component MMP-9 did not fall in the number of major proteins (Figure 4(b), Table 1).
Perinuclear pattern ANCA results from myeloperoxidase antibodies (MPOs) and occasionally leukocyte elastase or azurocidin. (16,17) Enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIAs) for detection of PR3 and MPO antibodies are also available.
Azurocidin is a novel antigen for antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in systemic vasculitis.
In addition, neutrophils degrade inflammatory cytokines by aggregated NETs, secrete soluble factors, including azurocidin
, cathepsin G, lipoxins, and lysophosphatidylserine, and are able to reprogramme macrophages to the regulatory M2 phenotype [6, 12-15].
However, so-called atypical ANCAs exist because of other neutrophil granule constituents (including human neutrophil elastase, azurocidin
, lactoferrin, and lysozyme), which cause inconsistent fluorescence patterns.
Kawamura et al., "The proteomic profile of circulating pentraxin 3 (PTX3) complex in sepsis demonstrates the interaction with azurocidin
1 and other components of neutrophil extracellular traps," Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, vol.
Additionally, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and antibodies against the cytoplasmic granule antigens lactoferrin, lysozyme, azurocidin
, elastase, cathepsin G, bactericidal/permeability-increasing enzyme (BPI) show the so-called atypical ANCA pattern on ethanol-fixed neutrophils [8-10].