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azotaemiaA higher than normal blood urea (BUN) or other nitrogen-containing compounds in the blood. Increased BUN may be:
• Prerenal, due to decreased renal blood flow, with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and/or excess urea production—seen in dehydration, shock, decreased blood volume and congestive heart failure;
• Renal, with decreased GFR due to acute or chronic renal failure; or
• Postrenal, due to urinary tract obstruction or perforation with extravasation of urine; decreased BUN occurs in pregnancy due to increased GFR, malnutrition, high fluid intake, severe liver.