Later studies, however, found that the cephalic vein courses in the upper arm lateral to biceps, to the deltopectoral groove, and perforates the clavipectoral fascia in the infraclavicular fossa to drain into the axillary vein
However, the comparison between subclavian and axillary vein
access through large-size sampled and randomized clinical trial is still limited.
Reference Year Age Sex Volume Onset extracted Dau et al (9) 1977 ND ND ND ND Wun et al (6) 1994 48 M 1200 cc 3 hrs Jones et al (10) 2002 39 F double-dose 4 days extraction (92 min) Leurent et al (2) 2010 47 M 724 cc 14 hrs Rosencher et al (3) 2011 57 M 663 cc 10 mins Reference Presentation Type Dau et al (9) Cerebrovascular Plasmapheresis accident Wun et al (6) Cerebrovascular Plasmapheresis accident Jones et al (10) Axillary vein
Plateletpheresis thrombosis Leurent et al (2) Acute Plasmapheresis Myocardial Infarction Rosencher et al (3) Acute Plasmapheresis Myocardial Infarction ND--not documented
(7) Melby et al., however, reported a relatively low diagnostic sensitivity of 71% of duplex Doppler to upper extremity thrombosis (9), and Shebel states that it is only reliable for thrombus extending into the axillary vein
Complications after axillary dissection Minor complications Numbness in distribution of intercostobrachial nerve (70%) Seroma (30%) Reduction in ROM of shoulder (25%) Lymphoedema (depends on the number nodes removed: may be minor or major complication) Major complications (infrequent) Thrombosis axillary vein
Injury to motor nerve in axilla
Besides cephalic vein cut-down technique, extrathoracic axillary vein
puncture is currently suggested as an alternative technique for venous access to avoid crush injury.
There are nodes of the anterior, posterior, inferior and superior subchains along the axillary vein
; the external mammary nodes draining channels from the breast; the inferior scapular nodes with channels feeding in from the lateral chest wall and the superior thoracic nodes.
Other causes of lymphedema include (a) metastasis or development of obstructive tumors, such as tumors of the axilla or brachial plexus; (b) lymphangiosarcoma; (c) infection; or (d) axillary vein
The most medial structure in the neurovascular bundle is the axillary vein
formed by the confluence of the brachial veins.
At the end of the long list of potential sites for graft placement, axillary artery and axillary vein
are listed; however, no studies could be found involving placement of the anterior chest wall graft using these sites.
(2000), also proposed it as a cause of the Paget-von Schrotter syndrome, which consists of the subclavian or axillary vein
thrombosis, either spontaneous or effort-related.
She was taking rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily for deep vein thrombosis of the left axillary vein
diagnosed 7 weeks ago.