Evaluation of the axillary nodes
is currently part of breast cancer staging and can help the clinician determine the need for adjuvant chemotherapy.
For in vitro micropropagation, three types of explants were tested: cotyledonary nodes, axillary nodes
and terminal apex.
Although axillary node
involvement might still have been seen in those with normal pre-treatment axillary nodes
, those who were called N1-N3 were well documented.
staging by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology in patients with breast cancer.
This single-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment provides evidence in support of early physiotherapy to prevent lymphoedema after axillary node
dissection surgery for breast cancer.
Women with circulatory and respiratory disabilities were significantly less likely than women without disabilities to receive axillary node
dissection and radiotherapy following BCS, which might reflect a variety of possibilities including patient preferences and substandard quality of care.
The procedure used in the past, known as complete axillary node
dissection, removed a large number of lymph nodes and caused about 20% of patients to develop lymphedema.
Pathologic examination, confirmed on review at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, revealed follicular non-Hodgkins lymphoma in the left inguinal node and mixed cellularity Hodgkins lymphoma in the right axillary node
Thirty-year follow-up data demonstrated that a positive internal mammary node has the same prognostic power as a positive axillary node
Existing histologic (tumor size, tumor grade, and axillary node
status) (5) and biological [e.
In the hands of expert surgeons, the less-invasive procedure appears to be as accurate as an axillary node
dissection, with less chance for side effects (see "MOre on Sentinel Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer" below).
In the hands of expert surgeons, the technique appears to be as accurate as a full axillary node
dissection, with less chance for side effects.