(5, 8, 27, 44, 46, 47, 52) Cosmetic deformity is another frequent complaint typically associated with non-operative treatment, as the normal contour of the axillary fold
is not restored and the muscle will undergo atrophy.
In 20 cases with presentation time equal to one month and more, weakness in adduction and internal rotation and cosmetic discomfort of a defect at the rupture site and anterior axillary fold
were the main complaints (Fig.
The donor site for the TDAP flap remains well hidden in the posterior axillary fold
. (23) We have used DIEP flaps designed vertically and transversely, using only the hemiabdomen in 6 patients.
Following standard antiseptic, aseptic and pre-medication protocol, the patients were injected with one percent lignocaine infiltration anaesthesia at the proposed site of transplantation in the axillary fold
of the skin of the recipients.
Findings as pain in the medial side of the upper arm, swelling and ecchymosis, asymmetry, and weakness with adduction and internal rotation are common, but the most useful sign is the absence of the anterior axillary fold
evidenced by resisted adduction or passive abduction of the affected arm .