"The team doing the "axial loading
" enjoys their advanatge.
All models were weighed and tested under axial loading
to determine effectiveness of design, with the top three also being evaluated based on the ratio between the maximum axial load at the point of failure and the weight of the bridge.
Under axial loading
, the core concrete was subjected to the double-side constraints of the internal and external steel tubes.
Meng, "Seismic behavior of steel reinforced ECC columns under constant axial loading
and reversed cyclic lateral loading," Materials and Structures, vol.
This means that no axial loading
was carried by FRP tubes and no elements in analysis represent the FRP tubes.
A total of 6 square concrete filled steel tubular columns were tested under axial loading
to evaluate the influence of global slenderness.
Thus, external axial loading
in time t is controlled by the instantaneous contribution of the vertical displacement [u.sub.z](t), while torque [[omega].sub.z](t).
The variability also persisted when the shells were subjected to axial loading
, as seen in Figure 14(b) presenting experimentally determined reduction of the first natural frequency of each shell as a function of the axial compressive load.
The most visible decrease of maximum displacements in the distal part of the model was detected in the Y plate model with axial loading
: in case of anterior gap 58.5% and especially at radially formed gap 60.9%.
"This required developing a loading system to enable the precise rotation of a sample while simultaneously and independently applying tensile or compressive axial loading
," explained Paul Shade, lead author and a materials research engineer for the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.