Their work uncovered a clear relationship between the use of the antibiotic avoparcin
and the widespread occurrence of resistant bacteria.
In 1975, avoparcin
was approved as a food additive and growth promoter in many countries worldwide, including the European Union, but not in Sweden, the United States, or Canada (van den Bogaard & Stobberingh, 2000; Hammerum et al.
used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms.
, as growth promoters in domestic animal production until the mid-1990s, VRE can be found in hospitals and the community (9).
causes cross-resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin among bacteria (21).
A EUROPEAN Union (EU) funded research project has developed tests for growth promoters banned in the EU, such as avoparcin
, spiramycin, tylosin, virginiamycin and zinc bacitracin.
Except in USA and Canada, avoparcin
(a glycopeptide-class antibiotic) has been used worldwide in animal food as a growth-promoting feed additive.
The emergence of glycopeptide-resistant strains is linked to the widespread use of avoparcin
in animal feed in Europe.
human-medicine antibiotics currently used in livestock and poultry food include arsanilic acid, avoparcin
, bacitracin, bam bermycin, chlortetracycline, erythromycin, furazolidone, glycopeptides, lincomycin, neomycin sulfate, nitrofurazone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxy phenylarsonic acid, oleandomycin, oxytetracycline, penicillin, procaine penicillin, sodium arsanilate, streptogramin, streptomycin, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinox-aline, sulfathiazole, tetracycline, tylosin, vancomycin, and virginiamycin;
A study in the Netherlands found that two years after the 1997 EU ban on the agricultural drug avoparcin
, the prevalence of bacterial resistance to a related human drug, vancomycin, had dropped by half in both livestock and people.
In 1997, the EU banned the use of the controversial glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin
and in 1999 suspended the use of four others, based on the `precautionary principle'.
The Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry dropped avoparcin
from a list of feed additives in 1997.