Geographic distribution of avirulence
genes in rice blast fungus in Yunnan Province, China.
Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and Phytophthora infestans avirulence
Avr gene correspondent to Pl2 gene in P halstedii, it seems that Avr gene stimulates less virulent spectrum and more aggressive characteristics in races 304 and 314 than races 704 and 714.
Ezra D, Barash I, Weinthal DM, Gaba V, Manulis S (2004) PthG from Pantoea agglomerans pv gypsophilae encodes an avirulence
effector that determines incompatibility in multiple beet species.
* The expression of resistance gene (R) products involved in the hypersensitive response (HR) and in interactions with avirulence
The discussions revolved around pathogen virulence and avirulence
, and host recognition and response; they are summarized in a final chapter.
In vertical resistance, plants containing a specific resistance gene (R gene) or virulence gene will interact with the corresponding avirulence
gene found in the pathogen, which is known as the "gene-for-gene" concept (Flor, 1971; Hammond-Kosack and Jones, 1996; Keen, 2000; Leister, 2000).
The issues that confound the use of these terms even among plant pathologists is found in distinctions between the technical and common meanings of these terms, differences in scale between whole organismal and molecular assessment of disease processes, and the subtle confusion between nominal and particulate things (e.g., virulence is the absence of a gene product, and therefore, is in name only, not a particulate thing; avirulence
, which common sense indicates is the absence of something, is a gene product, a particulate thing).
The fungal gene is referred to as an avirulence
, or Avr, gene.
Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pathogens of Arabidopsis and a bacterial locus determining avirulence
on both Arabidopsis and soybean.
The as-yet unidentified genes that make these factors are called avirulence
The former expectation that parasites evolve avirulence
over time has been rejected on theoretical and empirical grounds (Anderson and May 1982; Ewald 1983; May and Anderson 1983; Lenski 1988; Bull et al.