conditioning

(redirected from aversive conditioning)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to aversive conditioning: operant conditioning, Avoidance learning

conditioning

 [kon-dish´un-ing]
1. in physical medicine, improvement of physical health by a program of exercises; called also physical conditioning.
2. in psychology, a form of learning in which a response is elicited by a neutral stimulus which previously had been repeatedly presented in conjunction with the stimulus that originally elicited the response. Called also classical or respondent conditioning.

The concept had its beginnings in experimental techniques for the study of reflexes. The traditional procedure is based on the work of Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In this technique the experimental subject is a dog that is harnessed in a sound-shielded room. The neutral stimulus is the sound of a metronome or bell which occurs each time the dog is presented with food, and the response is the production of saliva by the dog. Eventually the sound of the bell or metronome produces salivation, even though the stimulus that originally elicited the response (the food) is no longer presented.

In the technique just described, the conditioned stimulus is the sound of the bell or metronome, and the conditioned response is the salivation that occurs when the sound is heard. The food, which was the original stimulus to salivation, is the unconditioned stimulus and the salivation that occurred when food was presented is the unconditioned response.

Reinforcement is said to take place when the conditioned stimulus is appropriately followed by the unconditioned stimulus. If the unconditioned stimulus is withheld during a series of trials, the procedure is called extinction because the frequency of the conditioned response will gradually decrease when the stimulus producing the response is no longer present. The process of extinction eventually results in a return of the preconditioning level of behavior.
aversive conditioning learning in which punishment or other unpleasant stimulation is used to associate negative feelings with an undesirable response.
classical conditioning conditioning (def. 2).
instrumental conditioning (operant conditioning) learning in which a particular response is elicited by a stimulus because that response produces desirable consequences (reward). It differs from classical conditioning in that the reinforcement takes place only after the subject performs a specific act that has been previously designated. If no unconditioned stimulus is used to bring about this act, the desired behavior is known as an operant. Once the behavior occurs with regularity the behavior may be called a conditioned response.

The traditional example of instrumental conditioning uses the Skinner box, named after B. F. Skinner, an American behavioral psychologist. The subject, a rat, is kept in the box and becomes conditioned to press a bar by being rewarded with food pellets each time its early random movements caused it to press against the bar.

The principles and techniques related to instrumental conditioning are used clinically in behavior therapy to help patients eliminate undesirable behavior and substitute for it newly learned behavior that is more appropriate and acceptable.
physical conditioning conditioning (def. 1).
respondent conditioning conditioning (def. 2).
work conditioning a physical exercise program designed to restore specific strength, flexibility, and endurance for return to work following injury, disease, or medically imposed rest; it may be part of a complete work hardening program when other aspects of functional restoration are required.

con·di·tion·ing

(kon-di'shŭn-ing),
1. The process of acquiring, developing, educating, establishing, learning, or training new responses in an individual. Used to describe both respondent and operant behavior; in both usages, refers to a change in the frequency or form of behavior as a result of the influence of the environment.
2. The application of a structured training program to prepare cardiovascular, muscular, and psychological readiness in human, canine, and equine athletes for competition or strenuous events.

conditioning

(kən-dĭsh′ə-nĭng)
n.
1. A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to associate a desired behavior with a previously unrelated stimulus.
2.
a. The process of training that results in physical fitness.
b. The state of physical fitness that results from such training.

conditioning

Psychiatry The establishing new behavior through psychologic modifications of responses to stimuli. See Operant conditioning, Respondent conditioning, Work conditioning.

con·di·tion·ing

(kŏn-dish'ŭn-ing)
The process of acquiring, developing, educating, establishing, learning, or training new responses in a person; a change in the frequency or form of behavior as a result of the influence of the environment.

conditioning

An important element in human programming and behaviour. Conditioning is a form of learning in which a particular stimulus will eventually and reliably elicit a particular behavioral response.

conditioning

see CONDITIONAL REFLEX, IMPRINTING, HABITUATION.

Conditioning

Process of preparing patient to receive marrow donation, often through the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Patient discussion about conditioning

Q. What are the other conditions with the symptoms similar to fibromyalgia?

A. Other conditions with similar symptoms include polymyalgia rheumatica, myofascial pain syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, lupus, sarcoidosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Q. On stopping the medicines his insomnia like condition starts hi all………………my dad is bipolar II and he was on lithium and clonazepam which had put his mania under control, but he sleeps a lot, as he finds his sleep refreshing him; which is due to medicine. On stopping the medicines his insomnia like condition starts and so now he takes his doses in excess to sleep…..we were told not to stop on these medicines……is it all right?

A. I agree with the others it is very dangerous to start and stop medications. One has to be weined off Lithium slowly. If your dad is finding that his current doses are not working properly he should be discussing it with his doctor whom will tweak his dosages or change his medications. It is so important to take medications as perscribed. Clonezepam can be addictive so it should be taken exactly as perscribed and monitored. There are other medications in the "pam" family that he can be changed to if the Clonezepam is no longer effective, rather than taking more.
The insomnia syptoms are signs of mania which will happen when he stops taking his medications. If you stop taking medications that are controlling bipolar symptoms the only logical outcome is the return of the bipolar symptoms. I would have him visit his doctor and discuss changing or increasing his doseages if he is finding they are not working effectivly anymore.

Q. What shall I include in my diet to cover the anemic condition and is anemia increases with pregnancy? Hi all. I am in my second week of pregnancy. I am anemic and prefer to have vegetarian diet. What shall I include in my diet to cover the anemic condition and is anemia increases with pregnancy?

A. Agree with Maverick's answer above..

Anemia in pregnancy is a very common problem, that's why during your antenatal care, usually your OB-GYn doctor or medical professional will give you iron tablet for supplements.

Unless your anemia is severe, it is unlikely to harm your baby. But iron deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of preterm birth and low birthweight. Anemia can also make you feel more tired than usual during your pregnancy.

You can help lower your risk of anemia by eating foods that contain iron during your entire pregnancy. These foods include:

Poultry (dark meat), Dried fruits (apricots, prunes, figs, raisins, dates), Iron-fortified cereals, breads and pastas, Oatmeal, Whole grains, Blackstrap molasses, Liver and other meats, Seafood, Spinach, broccoli, kale and other dark green leafy vegetables, Baked potato with skin, Beans and peas, Nuts and seeds, etc.

Also some fruit that rich in Vitamin C because vitamin C can increase the amount of iron yo

More discussions about conditioning
References in periodicals archive ?
Coyote predation on sheep, and control by aversive conditioning in Saskatchewan.
Instead of killing the animal, however, Manley turned to Hunt and her dogs, which gave the bruin a dose of aversive conditioning. The bear, which still lives in the area, has not had a confrontation with people since.
Neurocircuitry Underlying Aversive Conditioning. The brain circuitry underlying aversive conditioning is also quite well mapped.
Increasing evidence suggests that the LCNA system not only is important for aversive conditioning but also plays a role in reward processing related to addiction.
Cognitive models of anxiety indeed assume that threat appraisal is closely related to the expectancy of a harmful outcome (see General Discussion) and this dependent variable has been used successfully to assess threat appraisal in previous aversive conditioning experiments (e.g., Boddez et al., 2012; Chan & Lovibond, 1996; Davey, 1992).
The present experiments aimed to investigate the maintenance of selective threat appraisal in human aversive conditioning. In both experiments, we induced selective threat appraisal using the blocking procedure.
This instinctive response of distress is the basis for classical aversive conditioning of contextual stimuli, which in turn sets in motion the dynamics of escape.
This study was the first to show the emergence of avoidance responding to stimuli that had no direct relational history with aversive events and thus helps to explain how avoidance behaviors may develop in the absence of direct aversive conditioning.
Sixteen experimental rats were given four aversive conditioning trials with an odorless denatonium.
First, prior studies using external contexts repeatedly have shown that, at least in aversive conditioning procedures, simple conditioning does not yield contextual control, that is, it is not context specific (see, e.g., Bouton, 1993).