When we face an aversive
task, something that is boring, frustrating, low on enjoyment or something we don't know how to do, we put it off.
Following assessment, a treatment package including extinction and stimulus fading was implemented to increase toleration of aversive
Here, we test whether conspecific body extracts as well as authentic unsaturated fatty acids can serve as aversive
chemical reinforcements for associative learning in A.
This indicates that the prompting procedure was effective in teaching the fish to cross from one of the experimental tanks to the other without the use of an aversive
In an attempt to reduce the averseness of the concentrated FDT+ and quinine, either 250 mM sucrose (8%w/w) or 750 mM sucrose (25% w/w) was added to each concentration of the aversive
In contextual fear conditioning, experimental subjects are placed in an emotionally neutral context (such as a room) and presented an aversive
stimulus (such as an electrical shock).
According to Potter, LaTour, Braun-LaTour, and Reichert (2006), this is a dual-motivation system theory that suggests emotions arise as either appetitive (approach) or aversive
It starts by asking Question 1: Are the aversive
sensory attributes of the API known?
Face Matching Task (FMT) [2, 13] is one of the most commonly used paradigms to study affective processing; different versions have been adapted, which consider several conditions, but all of them allow the implicit and explicit assessment of affective processing, including aversive
emotions, such as fear or anger (see Materials and Methods for the task description).
racism theory is based on the idea that today racism
That is, when an aversive
stimulus is presented or a reinforcing stimulus is withdrawn, the probability that the action will be repeated declines (Kunkel & Berry, 1968).
The key to successful counter-conditioning, as this process is called, is to always keep the dog below threshold; you want him a little aware of and worried about the aversive
stimulus, but not quaking in fear or barking and lunging.