Two ubiquitin-like proteins, ATG8 and ATG12, play an important role in autophagy Conjugation of ATG8 with phosphatidylethanolamine and conjugation of ATG12 with ATG5 are mediated by the El-like protein ATG7, after which these conjugates localize to the developing autophagosome
via the E2-like enzymes [19,20].
In the following elongation phase, ATG5 belonging to the ATG12-ATG5-AT-G16L1 conjunction system and LC-3II belonging to the LC3 conjunction system play important roles for autophagosome
(2004) In vivo analysis of autophagy in response to nutrient starvation using transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent autophagosome
At 24 h post-CPR, autophagosomes
and autolysosomes were present.
WDFY3 (WD and FYVE zinc finger domain containing protein 3) encodes a protein that colocalizes with autophagosome
SW480 cells were treated with PPAR[alpha] agonist (clofibrate); the results showed that clofibrate significantly increased autophagosome
accumulation (Figure 5(a)).
TEM imaging showed that Exe treatment increased the number of autophagosomes
(red arrow) and lipid droplets (yellow arrow) in model mice (Figure 3(a)).
Beclin-1 and LC3B are required for autophagosome
formation and maturation, which is one of the most important steps of autophagy.
A higher magnification showed double-membraned autophagosomes
containing damaged mitochondria (Figures 3(g), 3(i), and 3(j)).
Intrathecal chloroquine injection into naive mice induces spinal accumulation of LC3 and p62, in parallel with significant mechanical hypersensitivity, thus confirming inhibition of autophagosome
clearance and suggesting the participation of autophagy in spinal mechanisms of pain processing.
formation contains four main steps, namely initiation of autophagosomal formation, nucleation of autophagosomal vesicles, elongation of autophagosomal membrane, and recognition of cargos .
The involvement of autophagy in the pathogenesis of asthma was demonstrated previously by microscopic examination showing autophagosome
formation in fibroblasts from asthmatic patients .