Finally, the autophagosomes can either fuse with endosomes, forming the hybrid organelle, the amphisome, before fusing with the lysosome or directly fuse with lysosomes, forming the autophagolysosomes
to degrade and recycle the sequestered materials .
Cytoplasmic p53 inhibits autophagy through the activation of mTOR signaling via the inactivation of AMP kinase , while nuclear p53 activates autophagy by transcriptional activation of DRAM (damage-regulated autophagy modulator) which promotes the formation of autophagolysosomes
autophagolysosomes of pancreatic acinar cells, mitochondrial swelling, acinar nucleus chromatin margination, and nuclear condensation and dissolution were observed at 12 and 24 h in this group (Figure 3(b), x15,000).
(3) In the late stage of autophagy, autophagosomes and lysosomes fused to form autophagolysosomes, but the number of various types of hydrolase activity in lysosomes was decreased.
The content of the resulting autophagolysosomes
(misfolded proteins, cellular metabolic waste) is then degraded by hydrolytic enzymes.
Deretic, "Autophagosomes, phagosomes, autolysosomes, phagolysosomes, autophagolysosomes
In fact, confocal microscopy experiments following mitochondria into autophagolysosomes
and mitochondrial potential registration point to mitochondrial fission processes preceding mitophagy to maintain homeostasis of these organelles .
Morphologically autophagy is characterized by the generation of double membrane vesicles (phagophores) which encompass portion of cytoplasm, organelles, glycogen, and protein aggregates becoming autophagosomes and then degraded by lysosomal proteases upon mature autophagolysosomes [9, 10].
Quantification of myofiber size, autophagic vacuoles, or autophagolysosomes and mitochondria density were expressed as mean [+ or -] SEM as previously described .
This microtubule-linked marker shifts to the different lipidated isoform II (LC3B-II) during autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes formation and has been considered a reliable autophagic marker .
C2C12 myotubes treated with DMSO appeared elongated with multiple nuclei with characteristic indentations and regular organelles (Figure 4(a)), while after 4h at 50 [micro]M CisPt exposure, autophagic vacuoles, myelinic whorls, autophagolysosomes, and dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum were observed around nuclei (Figures 4(d)-4(g)).
Although in 10 [micro]M CisPt exposed cells Tau preconditioning did not induce overt autophagic or apoptotic figures (data not shown), cells challenged with 50 [micro]M CisPt and Tau presented less autophagolysosomes in the sarcoplasm but surprisingly similar figures and myelinic debris were detected in the medium.