Caption: Figure 5: Autophagic vacuoles
in spinal cord of MeHg-treated embryos.
Ang-II-stimulated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy upregulated the expression of LC3-II as well as the number of autophagic vacuoles
and the inhibition of Ang-II-induced effects on autophagy has been suggested to protect against pathological myocardial hypertrophy .
(b) Autophagic vacuoles
induced by different treatments were observed using MDC staining of HSYA-SDT-treated cells with or without 3-MA (10 mM) pretreatment.
Therefore, we stained neuronal PC12 cells for LC3 and determined the presence of LC3-positive autophagic vacuoles
by immunofluorescence (Figures 8(a) and 8(b)).
This conclusion is based on the following five seminal observations: (1) almost all autophagic vacuoles
of alternative autophagy were localized near the Golgi apparatus, (2) Golgi ministack formation preceded autophagosome generation, (3) some isolation membranes extended from the Golgi membranes, (4) trans-Golgi proteins were observed on autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and (5) the depletion of Golgi proteins inhibited alternative autophagy but not conventional autophagy.
Mitophagy was also observed by electron microscopy (Figure 4(b)), and the number of p62-positive autophagic vacuoles
was slightly increased respect to normoxia at day 3 (Figures 3(d) and 4(c)).
Electron microscopy images revealed that the formation of autophagic vacuoles
was increased in hearts from ADR-treated mice, which was consistent with most of the current evidence.
PSO induced autophagy as evidenced by the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles
and alterations of autophagic protein expression.
Autophagosomes, also referred to as initial autophagic vacuoles
(AVi), were typically identified as vacuolar structures containing cellular contents that appeared similar to the cytosol and organelles in the cell, as presented in Figure 1(a).
However in the older goats of 5-7 years, autophagic vacuoles
and heterosomes of various sizes were commonly seen.
Autophagy is an essential and conserved process, through which intact organelles and/or large portions of the cytoplasm are engulfed within double-membraned autophagic vacuoles
for degradation, and may be dysregulated in metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer .
Consistently with an activation of the autophagic pathway, 0.5 mM lithium induces the appearance of many autophagic vacuoles
whereas the phosphorylation/inactivation of GSK3[alpha]/[beta] was observed only at a higher lithium concentration (2mM).