The PQC system is composed of two main arms: Firstly the molecular chaperone, mainly represented by the heat shock proteins (HSPs) and secondly the degradative pathways, including the proteasome, the autophagic
response and the unfolded protein response (UPR).
However, autophagy is also associated with a kind of programmed cell death (PCD), termed as autophagic
To link the different effects observed in protein turnover with the expression of genes related to UPS and autophagy proteolytic systems, an analysis of atrogenes and autophagic
genes was performed.
Importantly, such negative regulation of NOD1-RIP2 signaling by ATG16L1 was independent of autophagic
responses, implying that the NOD1 induction of autophagy via activation of RIP2 reported by Irving involves an autophagy-inducing mechanism independent of ATG16L1.
That is, animal models created with genetic inhibition of key autophagic
HDLs inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagic
response induced by oxidized LDLs.
Mutations in autophagy genes can cause disease, and the autophagic
process is involved in several conditions including cancer and neurological disease.
Modulation of apoptosis sensitivity through the interplay with autophagic
and proteasomal degradation pathways.
intracellular shortage, triggered by FK866 treatment, could cause autophagic
cell death via two possible molecular mechanisms.
28) Some studies indicated that AMPK may restrict HBV replication through promotion of autophagic
degradation, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated.
Silibinin triggers apoptotic signaling pathways and autophagic
survival response in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and their derived metastatic cells.
The effects of rapamycin on mTOR phosphorylation and autophagic
induction were confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining (see sections below).