were observed in neurons in the CsA group (Figure 3(h)).
(g, h) Image showing the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes
in each group of VSMCs detected by transmission electron microscopy (red arrow: autolysosomes
; white arrow: autophagosomes).
Autophagy is a dynamic process in which damaged organelles and long-lived proteins are delivered to the lysosome for degradation and recycling. During this dynamic process, the outer membrane of the autophagosomes (a double-membrane vesicle) fuses with the lysosomal membrane forming an autolysosome
. Within the lysosome, the inner autophagosomal membrane and autophagosomal compartment are degraded and the resulting molecules are recycled.
The inhibition of Akt and mTOR pathway may affect the reformation of autolysosome
and disrupt the autophagic flux in [PICK1.sup.-/-] mice.
Examination with TEM showed partially degraded dinoflagellates that contained small, round bodies (possible autolysosomes
) [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 6B OMITTED].
Autophagy can be thought of as a process of cellular self-cannibalism in which cytoplasmic components (i.e., macromolecules  and organelles [13, 14]) are sequestered and enclosed within double- or multimembraned vesicles (autophagosomes), which then fuses with the lysosome to become an autolysosome
and degrade the materials contained within it.
This autophagosome will then fuse with the lysosome to become an autolysosome
which then degrades the cellular cargo contained within it.
Then, the stuffed autophagosome is ready to fuse with the lysosome thus forming the "autolysosome
" whose cargo is finally digested by the lysosomal acidic hydrolases [66, 67].
Lysosomes fuse with autophagosomes forming an autolysosome
to degrade extracellular or intracellular material .
Autophagic process acts in a physiological manner to degrade cytoplasmic constituents, proteins, protein aggregates, and whole organelles, which are engulfed in autophagosomes which then fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosome
for degradation [9, 10].
Caption: Figure 3: Transmission electron microscopy of myocardial ultrastructure (black arrow indicates autophagosome or autolysosome
; white arrow indicates mitochondrion.
Caption: Figure 4: miR-155 promotes autophagosome and autolysosome