Tumour co-expression of apelin and its receptor is the basis of an autocrine
loop involved in the growth of colon adenocarcinomas.
These data suggest that LIF and LIFR act on endometrial epithelial cells in an autocrine
manner and on stromal cells in a paracrine manner.
role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 tax-transfected Jurkat T-cells.
Interleukin-8 as an autocrine
growth factor for human colon carcinoma cells in vitro.
The free monomeric beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG beta) and the recently identified homodimeric beta-beta subunit (hCG beta beta) both have autocrine
This peptide acts not only in endocrine but also autocrine
and paracrine ways (as a growth factor, neurotransmitter, or immunomodulator) .
Signalling molecules, both from autocrine
and paracrine sources, can be derived from hormones, ATP, and even neurotransmitters.
It should be kept in mind, however, that adipokines are part of large neuroendocrine-immune-metabolic networks, and they exert their effects through complex endocrine, paracrine, autocrine
, or juxtacrine crosstalk mechanisms, which should be further investigated with system medicine approaches.
It has been reported that induction of autocrine
production of IL-6 is responsible for interferon alpha-induced growth in MM cells (21).
As IL-21 can be produced by Th17 cells and stimulate the differentiation of Th17 cells to produce IL-17 in an autocrine
manner,[sup], it can also affect the differentiation, proliferation, and function of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and B-cells, which are the main inflammatory cells in patients with DM and PM.[sup], We inferred that IL-21 may play a role similar to that of IL-17 in myositis patients.
UVA induced autocrine
stimulation of fibroblast-derived collagenase/MMP by interrelated loops of interleeutin-1 and interleukin-6.
Over the last decade, however, numerous studies have demonstrated that WAT is a dynamically active endocrine organ that can produce and secrete biologically active peptides and proteins called adipokines, which have autocrine
, paracrine, and endocrine actions.