authorship

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authorship

The state of being an author; the writer of a communication.

Authorship in the sciences
The credits for a publication in the sciences are problematic; the advantages of being an author on published reports in the literature are considerable, and include peer respect, conferral of authority status and career advancement, which is often a function of how many publications a person has generated. Sharing authorship credits has the potential disadvantage of being the co-author on a report later deemed fraudulent.

Dr A Relman, emeritus editor of the New England Journal of Medicine, delineated four criteria (see table), at least 2 of which must be met to legitimately share authorship credits. Many articles, proceedings or books have multiple authors; the names of the authors following the first author are known as co-authors; corporations, government agencies and associations may also be listed as authors of a work. In ISI indexes, first (primary) and secondary (co-authors) of a source article are searchable in print and electronically—ISI also indexes all cited authors; the first cited author in each reference is searchable in all products; unique to the Web of Science is the ability to search on secondary authors in the cited reference field.

Authorship “Relman’s criteria”
• Conception of idea and design of experiment;
• Actual execution of experiment—hands-on experience;
• Analysis and interpretation of data;
• Writing the manuscript.

authorship

Science journalism The state of being an author. See Author, Author misconduct, CV-weighing, Darsee affair, Honorary authorship, Mega-author paper, Slutsky affair, Spurious authorship, Unearned authorship.
References in periodicals archive ?
Taken at face value, multiple authorship is simply a neutral fact
Definition of authorship. Individuals should only take authorship credit for work they have actually performed or to which they have substantially contributed.
The ICMJE has suggested the following rules for authorship. Authorship credit should be based on:[sup.5]
"Gift" authorships are inappropriate and indeed are probably unethical.
To broaden instructors' understandings of the possibilities for the relatively peaceful coexistence of individual and collaborative authorship, it offers an overview of authorship history.
[2] Implied authorship has not saved us from this circularity.
Hren et al., (8) in a research conducted in a faculty of medicine, found that a percentage of the students who had graduated considered as authorship criterion that of obtaining the financial support to carry out the research.
Todd also cites Janet Staiger's "authorship as origin approach," which treats the author as a "free agent." Todd frequently refers to Lynch as a "post-classical auteur," not because there is something implicitly "post-" about Lynch that separates him from our traditional notions of the classical auteur, but rather because he situates Lynch as "a historically constituted agent" of post-classical Hollywood as well as post-classical art cinema.
Also, the efforts put in by those who do not reach this authorship level cannot be taken for granted.
When individuals with different opinions, competing career objectives, and statuses that range from first-year graduate students, lab technicians, and statisticians to full professors work together on projects and manuscripts, it may be inevitable that disagreements about authorship credit will emerge.
Unjustified authorship in science, can also be due to: a) imposition or pressure, b) inclusion of a prestigious researchers, c) strategy to consolidate research groups, d) institutional obligations (collaboration), and e) lack of understanding of copyright standards (17).
Why did the fact that authorship issues challenged my colleagues come as no surprise?