and hydroxychloroquine inhibit nitric oxide production in chondrocytes and in human osteoarthritic cartilage.
Representative examples of therapeutic metallodrugs include Y-90 (Zevalin) used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, sodium aurothiomalate
(Myochrysine, Myocrisin, and Tauredon) or aurothioglucose (Aureotan, Solganal, Solganol, and Auromyose) used in rheumatoid arthritis patients, and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol), awidelyuseddrug for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders .
15,20 Another experimental study of gold induced nephropathy in guinea pigs by sodium aurothiomalate favours our results.
Nagi, et al, investigated gold nephropathy in experimental rats induced by sodium aurothiomalate and showed that in higher doses renal damage is due to the direct toxic action of gold on proximal convoluted tubules and in lower doses due to the stimulation of immune system.
much greater than] aurothioglucose, aurothiomalate
, and auranofin) compared with Gpx and glutathione reductase (Nordberg and Arner 2001).
The drug, aurothiomalate, is being tested in a phase I clinical trial in patients with lung cancer at Mayo Clinic's sites in Minnesota and Arizona.
Based on findings to date, a phase II clinical trial is being planned to combine aurothiomalate with agents targeted at other molecules involved in cancer growth.
Effect of sodium aurothiomalate
myocrisin on DNA synthesis in phytohaemagglutin-stimulated cultures of sheep lymphocytes.
Smith and Levander to test two gold-containing compounds, aurothiomalate
The study also shows that an agent, aurothiomalate
, being tested at Mayo Clinic in a phase I clinical trial substantially inhibits growth of these cancer stem cells.
Subjects were excluded if they were < 25 years of age (n = 11); had diabetes mellitus (n = 4); reported long-term use of glucocorticoids (n = 11), thiazide diuretics (n = 7), methotrexate (n = 1), or sodium aurothiomalate
(n = 1); were currently pregnant (n = 4); or used effective equipment for removing uranium from well water (n = 4).
Persons with diabetes mellitus (n = 4) or chronic use of methotrexate (n = 1) or sodium aurothiomalate
(n = 1), pregnant women (n = 4), and households with effective equipment for removing uranium from well water (n = 4) were excluded.