auditory nerve

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Related to auditory nerve: cochlea


a macroscopic cordlike structure of the body, comprising a collection of nerve fibers that convey impulses between a part of the central nervous system and some other body region. See Appendix 2-6 and see color plates.

Depending on their function, nerves are known as sensory, motor, or mixed. Sensory nerves, sometimes called afferent nerves, carry information from the outside world, such as sensations of heat, cold, and pain, to the brain and spinal cord. Motor nerves, or efferent nerves, transmit impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles. Mixed nerves are composed of both motor and sensory fibers, and transmit messages in both directions at once.

Together, the nerves make up the peripheral nervous system, as distinguished from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which carry messages to and from the brain. Spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord and pass out between the vertebrae; there are 31 pairs, 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. The various nerve fibers and cells that make up the autonomic nervous system innervate the glands, heart, blood vessels, and involuntary muscles of the internal organs.
Details of structure of components of nerve tissue.
accelerator n's the cardiac sympathetic nerves, which, when stimulated, accelerate the action of the heart.
acoustic nerve vestibulocochlear nerve; see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices.
afferent nerve any nerve that transmits impulses from the periphery toward the central nervous system, such as a sensory nerve. See also neuron.
articular nerve any mixed peripheral nerve that supplies a joint and its associated structures.
auditory nerve vestibulocochlear nerve; see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices.
autonomic nerve any nerve of the autonomic nervous system; called also visceral nerve.
cranial n's see cranial nerves.
cutaneous nerve any mixed peripheral nerve that supplies a region of the skin. See anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices.
depressor nerve
1. a nerve that lessens the activity of an organ.
2. an afferent nerve whose stimulation causes a fall in blood pressure.
efferent nerve any nerve that carries impulses from the central nervous system toward the periphery, such as a motor nerve. See also neuron.
excitor nerve one that transmits impulses resulting in an increase in functional activity.
excitoreflex nerve a visceral nerve that produces reflex action.
fusimotor n's those that innervate the intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle.
gangliated nerve any nerve of the sympathetic nervous system.
inhibitory nerve one that transmits impulses resulting in a decrease in functional activity.
medullated nerve myelinated nerve.
mixed nerve (nerve of mixed fibers) a nerve composed of both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers.
motor nerve a peripheral efferent nerve that stimulates muscle contraction.
myelinated nerve one whose axons are encased in a myelin sheath; called also medullated nerve.
peripheral nerve any nerve outside the central nervous system.
pilomotor n's those that supply the arrector muscles of hair.
pressor nerve an afferent nerve whose irritation stimulates a vasomotor center and increases intravascular tension.
sciatic nerve see sciatic nerve.
secretory nerve an efferent nerve whose stimulation increases vascular activity.
sensory nerve a peripheral nerve that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the spinal cord or brain. See also neuron.
somatic n's the sensory and motor nerves supplying skeletal muscle and somatic tissues.
spinal n's the 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord and passing out through the vertebrae; there are eight cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. , and see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices.
Spinal nerves emerging from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramina with muscles or muscle movements listed for specific levels. From McQuillan et al., 2002.
splanchnic n's those of the blood vessels and viscera, especially the visceral branches of the thoracic, abdominal (lumbar), and pelvic parts of the sympathetic trunks. See Appendix 3-5.
sudomotor n's those that innervate the sweat glands.
sympathetic n's
2. any nerve of the sympathetic nervous system.
trophic nerve one concerned with regulation of nutrition.
unmyelinated nerve one whose axons are not encased in a myelin sheath.
vasoconstrictor nerve one whose stimulation causes contraction of blood vessels.
vasodilator nerve one whose stimulation causes dilation of blood vessels.
vasomotor nerve one concerned in controlling the caliber of vessels, whether as a vasoconstrictor or vasodilator.
vasosensory nerve any nerve supplying sensory fibers to the vessels.
visceral nerve autonomic nerve.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

co·chle·ar nerve

the part of the vestibulocochlear nerve [CN VIII] peripheral to the cochlear root; composed of the central nerve processes of the bipolar neurons of the spiral ganglion, which have their peripheral processes on the four rows of neuroepithelial cells (hair cells) of the spiral organ.
See also: cochlear root of cranial nerve VIII.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

auditory nerve

The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

auditory nerve

The cranial nerve which connects the inner ear to the brainstem, which contains sensory fibres for sound and vestibular fibres for balance.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

coch·le·ar nerve

(kok'lē-ăr nĕrv) [TA]
The part of the vestibulocochlear nerve peripheral to the cochlear root. It is composed of fibers with central nerve processes that arise from the bipolar neurons of the spiral ganglion and that have their peripheral processes on the four rows of neuroepithelial cells (hair cells) of the spiral organ.
Synonym(s): auditory nerve.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

auditory nerve

The acoustic or vestibulocochlear nerve. The 8th cranial nerve.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

auditory nerve

the 8th cranial nerve. It carries sensory impulses from the inner ear.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
One "component" that is not illustrated in Figure 3 is the biological component central to the auditory nerve (colored yellow in the figure), which includes the auditory pathways in the brain stem and the auditory cortices of the implant recipient.
It is prescribed for patients who do not have an auditory nerve to conduct the electric impulses.
The results were consistent with those reported by Sinha et al.,12 suggesting that the vestibular branch of auditory nerve and its dominant structure were also involved.
My audiologist activated the first MAP, which is a program that calibrates how much input each electrode (22 in my case) transmits to the auditory nerve. First MAPs are limited to avoid overwhelming the patient, so the "sound" you get in that session is very different than what you'll get 6 months later.
Intracranially recorded responses from human auditory nerve: new insights into the origin of brainstem evoked potentials.
BERA recording can represent an objective clinically useful non-invasive procedure to stress the early impairment both of the auditory nerve and of brainstem function is not related to blood glucose level.
The implant utilizes electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve to enable the patient to hear, and those electronics are placed in either a ceramic or cast titanium housing, although titanium has grown in preference due to the material's leak tightness and impact strength.
Supplementing the 1200 images within the book are 15 outstanding videos available on Thieme's MediaCenter demonstrating the implantation of the different cochlear implantation devices that are currently available and the application of brainstem implants in these situations: tumor removal, malformation (missing auditory nerve in children), and cochlear ossification.
Here, millions of tiny hair cells are stimulated to release glutamate at synapses with the auditory nerve, triggering impulses to fire along the auditory nerve to the brain.
Among the topics are temporal coding in the auditory cortex, white-matter pathways for speech and language processing, hemodynamic imaging of the auditory cortex, neurocognitive development in congenitally deaf children, deafness in cochlear and auditory nerve disorders, auditory neglect and related disorders, and hearing disorders in multiple sclerosis.
They respond to mechanical sound vibrations by sending an electrical signal to the auditory nerve. Different groups of hair cells are responsible for different frequencies (rate of vibrations).
Many children born deaf benefit from cochlear implants, electrodes that send impulses to the auditory nerve, where they're relayed to the brain and recognized as sound.