If the higher-order interactions including congruency were significant, an attentional bias
index would be calculated (see below).
Overall, individuals with SAD exhibit impaired activation in the associative, interpretative, and attentional processes potentially leading to an attentional bias
(31,32), especially for stimuli perceived as dangerous or threatening (33,34).
Nonetheless, a few addressed alcohol attentional bias
(4 %), and one studied both IAC dimensions (1 %).
The unreliability of self-report measures in eating disorders due to strong denial of illness gave rise to experimental studies inspired by research into anxiety disorders involving attentional bias
, with the prevalent method being a modified color-naming Stroop task.
Given the tendency for depressed individuals to perpetuate negative self-evaluations, and the attentional bias
towards schema-consistent information that is associated with depression (e.g., Disner et al., 2011; Clark et al., 1999; Alloy et al., 2011), it seems likely that this focus is linked to a negative implicit attitude about their own current age group.
Attention allocation to the stimulation location is inferred when participants respond faster to visual targets displayed ipsilaterally than on targets displayed contralaterally to stimulation, as can be deduced from the attentional bias
index (i.e., the difference in response time to the contralateral minus the ipsilateral targets ).
We suggest this reduction might have resulted from the meditators' ability to better control the interference of cues associated with the drug, and to reduce attentional bias
to these stimuli, which are processes known to normally lead to craving or to the drug use behavior (Peuker, Lopes, Menezes, Cunha, & Bizarro, 2013).
Cognitive factors such as attentional bias
have not been widely studied in aggressive populations, and results have been inconsistent, with some researchers finding attentional bias
toward anger-related words (van Honk et al.
It discusses emotion, attention, and information processing, including basic conceptual and theoretical issues, the selection of emotional stimuli, attentional bias
in emotional disorders like depression and anxiety, affective bias in attention, and attention deficits in emotional disorders; cognitive content and process in emotional disorders, including distressing intrusive thoughts, interactionist approaches to stress, self-focused attention, attention manipulations, and whether attentional disorder is the cause or consequence of emotional problems; and a new theoretical model of attention and self-regulation that explains the development and maintenance of clinical problems and accounts for laboratory data on attention bias and performance and its clinical implications.
This emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD can result in attentional bias
. Studies have shown that individuals with GAD experience an attention bias toward threat (2-4), which results in the hyperarousal of negative emotions.
reported a considerable reduction in "attentional bias
" or "focus" related to the disorder, after the hormone treatment.