attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit disorder Psychiatry An inability to control behavior due to difficulty in processing neural stimuli, resulting in ↑ motor activity, ↓ attention span Epidemiology ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, with a point-prevalence of 2% to 18%—depending on defining criteria; in children, the ♂:♀ ratio is 2:1; in adults, 1:2, characterized by impulsiveness, distractibility, variably accompanied by hyperactivity and/or aggressiveness, immaturity and emotional lability; although ADHD is considered idiopathic, neurochemistry and genetics may play a role Diagnosis ADHD is a diagnosis of exclusion Imaging NMR, ADHD brains may be 5% smaller in the anterior frontal region, the right caudate and globus pallidus; by PET, ADHD Pts maintain blood flow through temporal region, in contrast to controls, where the blood flow is ↓ Management Stimulants-methylphenidate-Ritalin®, dextroamphetamine, pemoline; antidepressants–desipramine, imipramine, bupropion; alpha-adrenergic agonists–clondine DiffDx Sensory deficit, receptive language disorder, specific learning disability, seizures, emotional problems, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, problems of parent-child interaction, mental retardation See Breuning affair.
References in periodicals archive ?
01 (ANI): Mental health symptoms are related to attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, and mental health disorders are associated with increased errors in a driving simulator and self-reported risky driving behaviors in teenagers.
01 ( ANI ): Mental health symptoms are related to attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, and mental health disorders are associated with increased errors in a driving simulator and self-reported risky driving behaviors in teenagers.
The researchers, emphasizing that most of the adoptees in the study were psychologically healthy and faring well, said that, as a group, those adolescents faced a greater risk for two psychiatric conditions: attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder.
About 7 in 100 adolescents who were not adopted met the criteria for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, about half the rate for adopted adolescents.
* Most new cases of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are of the predominantly inattentive subtype.
Celgene Corporation (Warren, NJ; 732-271-1001) announced the company had been awarded United States Patent 5,922,736 for the once daily administration of d-methylphenidate, the chirally pure version of RITALIN (dl-methylphenidate) for the treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Current RITALIN regimens require multiple daily dosages, a major inconvenience for young attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder patients; pending scientific and regulatory reviews, the single dose administration of d-methylphenidate may help many attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder patients better comply with their treatment.
Jerome Zeldis, MD, PhD, vice president for medical affairs at Celgene and co-author of the patent, noted that simplifying the dosage regimen for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder patients could be expected to afford substantial benefits for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder patients and their healthcare providers, particularly at school.
"If demonstrated clinically, administration of d-methylphenidate for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder outside of the school setting would eliminate the need for children to report to their school nurse's offices for treatment, easing the visibility and stigma of their condition and easing the burden on the school," Dr.
Half of every dose of the drug Ritalin, taken by an estimated 2 million children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may contribute nothing to its therapeutic effect, while possibly adding to its side effects, say researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, N.Y.
Many scientists assume that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stems from a poorly understood brain malfunction.
The parents and family physician face a difficult question: Does the boy have attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric condition among children?

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