attapulgite


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attapulgite

 [at″ah-pul´jīt]
a clay mineral that contains aluminum silicate and is the main ingredient of fuller's earth; activated attapulgite is a heat-treated form that is administered orally in the treatment of diarrhea.

attapulgite

(at-a-pull-gite) ,

Children's Kaopectate

(trade name),

Fowler’s Anti-Diarrhea Tablets

(trade name),

Fowler's attapulgite oral suspension

(trade name),

Kaopectate

(trade name),

Kaopectate Extra Strength

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antidiarrheals
Pharmacologic: adsorbents
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Adjunct in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate acute diarrhea.

Action

Appears to act by adsorbing bacteria and toxins and decreasing loss of water.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased number and water content of stools.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Action is local. Attapulgite is not absorbed.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (antidiarrheal effect)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknownunknownunknown

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; Severe dehydration; Diarrhea that may be caused by parasites; Dysentery.
Use Cautiously in: Pediatric / Geriatric: Children <3 yr or geriatric patients have increased risk of dehydration.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Gastrointestinal

  • constipation

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

May decrease the gastrointestinal absorption of concurrently administered oral medications (administer 2–3 hr before or 2–4 hr after attapulgite).

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults) 1.2–3 g after each loose stool (not to exceed 9 g/24 hr).
Oral (Children 6–12 yr) 600–1500 mg after each loose stool (not to exceed 4.5 g/24 hr).
Oral (Children 3–6 yr) 300–750 mg after each loose stool (not to exceed 2.25 g/24 hr).

Availability

Oral suspension: 600 mg/15 mLOTC, 750 mg/5 mLOTC, 900 mg/15 mLOTC
Tablets: 630 mgOTC

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess the frequency and consistency of stools and bowel sounds before and throughout course of therapy.
  • Assess fluid and electrolyte balance and skin turgor for dehydration.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Diarrhea (Indications)
Constipation (Side Effects)
Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Administer after each loose bowel movement until diarrhea is controlled.
    • Do not administer other medications within 2–3 hr before or after attapulgite administration.
  • Oral: Shake suspension well before administration.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if diarrhea persists longer than 48 hr or if fever or abdominal pain develops.
  • Advise patient or parent not to use attapulgite and to notify health care professional if stool contains blood or mucus or is accompanied by fever.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in frequency of loose stools.
    • Return to soft, formed stools.

attapulgite

/at·ta·pul·gite/ (at″ah-pul´jīt) a hydrated silicate of aluminum and magnesium, a clay mineral that is the main ingredient of fuller's earth; activated a. is a heat-treated form that is used in the treatment of diarrhea.

attapulgite

[at′ah-pul′jīt]
a clay mineral that contains aluminum silicate and is the main ingredient of Fuller's earth. Activated attapulgite is a heat-treated form that is administered orally in the treatment of diarrhea.
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Attapulgite crude mined by Active Mineral International
The colloidal grade attapulgite segment dominated the global attapulgite market, accounting for over 65% share in 2013.
The zeolite used in this study was provided by Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (Nanjing, China) and the attapulgite was provided by Huaian Shenlite Mining Institute (Huaian, China).
NY, USA) mixed with attapulgite clay (AGSORB-325 LVM-GA, Agrisorbents, IL, USA) were tested as baits.
The product is manufactured from high oleic oil that was made electrically pure through an attapulgite adsorbent clay treatment.
Fitz Chem, Elmhurst, IL, a midwest distributor/sales agent of raw materials to the rubber, plastics, paint, coatings, ink and adhesives industries, has been appointed as distributor for Milwhite's attapulgite clay and gel products in the territory of Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, upper peninsula of Michigan and Minnesota.
Paquet H (1983) Stability, instability and significance of attapulgite in the calcretes of mediterranean and tropical areas with marked dry season.
In a 1996 practice parameter on acute gastroenteritis in children 1 month to 5 years of age (Pediatrics 97[3]:424-35, 1996), the AAP stated that there is limited evidence of efficacy for loperamide, bismuth subsalicylate, and attapulgite in the treatment of children with acute diarrhea.
SSPT operates two mines; Lam-Lam produces some 300,000 t/y of phosphate and Allou Kagne over 80,000 t/y of attapulgite.
The principal gangue materials in all marine phosphorites are quartz, carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), alkali feldspars, clay minerals (montmorillonite, attapulgite, illite, sepiolite, chlorite, and kaolinite), iron oxide minerals (geothite and hematite), pyrite, and organic material.
Another well-known, tried-and-true technique to stabilize composites and improve their uniformity is to use high-quality, gel-grade attapulgite mineral products.
In which, the nanofillers, for example, carbon nanotube (CNT) [28-32], attapulgite (ATP), and acid treated ATP [33, 34], nanosilica and modified nanosilica [35] with extremely high specific surface areas ([?