nuclear energy

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energy

 [en´er-je]
power that may be translated into motion, overcoming resistance or causing a physical change; the ability to do work. Energy assumes several forms; it may be thermal (in the form of heat), electrical, mechanical, chemical, radiant, or kinetic. In doing work, the energy is changed from one form to one or more other form(s). In these changes some of the energy is “lost” in the sense that it cannot be recaptured and used again. Usually there is loss in the form of heat, which escapes or is dissipated unused; all energy changes give off a certain amount of heat.ƒ

All activities of the body require energy, and all needs are met by the consumption of food containing energy in chemical form. The human diet comprises three main sources of energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Of these three, carbohydrates most readily provide the kind of energy needed to activate muscles. Proteins work to build and restore body tissues. The body transforms chemical energy derived from food by the process of metabolism, an activity that takes place in the individual cell. Molecules of the food substances providing energy pass through the cell wall. Inside the cell, chemical reactions occur that produce the new forms of energy and yield by-products such as water and waste materials; see also adenosine triphosphate.
free energy (Gibbs free energy (G)) the energy equal to the maximum amount of work that can be obtained from a process occurring under conditions of fixed temperature and pressure.
nuclear energy energy that can be liberated by changes in the nucleus of an atom (as by fission of a heavy nucleus or by fusion of light nuclei into heavier ones with accompanying loss of mass).

nu·cle·ar en·er·gy

energy given off in the course of a nuclear reaction or stored in the formation of an atomic nucleus.

nuclear energy

Energy released mainly as heat, light and ionizing radiation as a result of changes in the nuclei of atoms. Nuclear energy is released during the spontaneous decay (fission) of naturally occurring radioactive substances and during atomic fusion reactions, as in the sun. It is also released in such devices as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

energy

power that may be translated into motion, overcoming resistance, or effecting physical change; the ability to do work. Energy assumes several forms; it may be thermal (in the form of heat), electrical, mechanical, chemical, radiant or kinetic. In doing work, the energy is changed from one form to another or to several forms. In these changes some of the energy is 'lost' in the sense that it cannot be recaptured and used again. Usually there is loss in the form of heat, which escapes or is dissipated unused. All energy changes give off a certain amount of the energy as heat.
All activities of the body require energy, and all needs are met by the consumption of food containing energy in chemical form. The animal diet comprises three main sources of energy: carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Of these three, carbohydrates most readily provide the kind of energy needed to activate muscles. Proteins work to build and restore body tissues. The body transforms chemical energy derived from food by the process of metabolism, an activity that takes place in the individual cell. Molecules of the food substances providing energy pass through the cell membrane. Inside the cell, chemical reactions occur that produce the new forms of energy and yield by-products such as water and waste materials. See also adenosine.

dietary energy
the total energy intake in the diet is the gross energy. Digestible energy is gross energy less fecal energy. Metabolizable energy is digestible energy less that lost in fermentation in the gut, energy lost in urine. Net energy is metabolizable energy less energy used in specific dynamic action response. Expressed as joules, calories or occasionally therms (1 calorie=4.18 joule).
energy density
see caloric density.
energy feeds
feeds with a high carbohydrate content and therefore low fiber (<18%) and="" protein=""><20%)>
free energy
the energy equal to the maximum amount of work that can be obtained from a process occurring under conditions of fixed temperature and pressure.
nuclear energy
energy that can be liberated by changes in the nucleus of an atom (as by fission of a heavy nucleus or by fusion of light nuclei into heavier ones with accompanying loss of mass).
nutritional energy deficiency
causes loss of body weight, milk, egg and wool production. Continued for long periods or severe restriction causes particular metabolic upsets in pregnant and lactating ewes and cows—see pregnancy toxemia, acetonemia (2); in neonates, hypoglycemia. In others causes emaciation, inanition, starvation.
energy production
production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation or anaerobic glycolysis.
energy requirements
generally vary between species and particularly between individuals. They are determined by many factors, especially age, level of activity, physiological status and body size, specifically body surface area. The basal energy requirement (BER) is the level required by a healthy animal at complete rest in a neutral environmental temperature. It can be calculated by using several formulae, based on body weight or body surface area, which is then used in the further calculation of the maintenance energy requirement (MER) which takes into account the individual animal's level of activity or disease status.
energy reserves
any reduced carbon stored in compounds such as fatty acids in triacylglycerols of adipose tissue, glucose in glycogen, and amino acids in protein releases energy, ultimately in the form of ATP on oxidation of the carbon.
energy transfer
conversion of energy from one form usually chemical in the form of ATP to another usually chemical, but can be electrical, mechanical or heat energy.
References in periodicals archive ?
During the latest Arab Summit in Doha, Arab countries adopted a strategy for the peaceful use of atomic energy.
The guests of the seminar were the representatives of the countries which participate in the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Actions (China, France, Germany, UK, and USA) as well as high-ranking officials from the European Commission and Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Irfan Siddiqui expressed his satisfaction over the functioning of 18 cancer hospitals being run by the Atomic Energy Commission for providing treatment to about 80 per cent patients free of cost.
Kuwait supports all efforts to solve the nuclear file peacefully and in a manner that guarantees that Tehran and all regional countries use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes under the supervision of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), said His Highness the Prime Minister.
Member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as well as Russian and European politicians and managers of nuclear companies will join the exhibition, the Iranian students news agency reported.
It is noteworthy that the Fukushima ministerial nuclear safety conference is being held in Japan with the participation of the International Atomic Energy Agency and 120 countries and international organizations.
The co-operation programme falls in line with the implementation of the Arab strategy on the peaceful use of atomic energy, decided by the Arab leaders and Heads of State at the Doha Summit in March 2009.
The newspaper said Meirav Zafary-Odiz, director of policy and arms control for the Israeli nuclear agency, and Ali Asghar Soltanieh, Iran's delegate to the International Atomic Energy Agency, met several times in Cairo at the end of September.
Homi Jehangir Bhabha, who was the founder of the Indian Atomic Energy Programme and also had the distinction of being the President of the first International Conference on this subject held in Geneva in 1955.
Summary: Iran said it will soon inform the International Atomic Energy Agency of a timetable for inspection of its recently-announced nuclear facility in Qom.
The head of the Iranian Atomic Energy Organization is to travel to Vienna on Monday for talks with the head of the UN nuclear watchdog, Mohamed ElBaradei.
Minister of Energy and Ministerial Resources Khaled Shreidah said the use of atomic energy made positive contributions in many fields in the world including economic and social growth.

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