Bogduk, adding to Lance and Anthony's contributions to the anatomic explanation for this syndrome, argued that proprioceptive fibers from the lingual nerve returning via the C2 ventral ramus/cervical plexus are impacted against the edge of an articular process of the atlantoaxial joint
. Additionally, Bogduk believed that the ipsilateral neck pain component of this syndrome is caused by abnormal subluxation of that joint rather than by nerve compression because experimental compression of spinal nerves or peripheral nerves has produced numbness but not pain [4, 5].
AARF causes torticollis and neck pain because of dislocation or subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint
[2, 11, 12].
Over time this category of patients would start showing the typical posture with hyperextension of the atlantoaxial joint
, head protruding forward from the rest of the trunk, exaggerated upper dorsal kyphosis, loss of lumbar lordosis with decreased movement of the neck, decreased chest expansion, and restriction of the mobility of the lumbar spine in all the planes.
More recently, there has been an increased focus on the lateral atlantoaxial joint
as a pain generator in patients with chronic neck pain and cervicalgia [1-3].
Septic arthritis of the atlantoaxial joint
: a case report.
 The symptoms of nuchal pain, and lancinating sensation with loss of power of upper and lower limb muscles indicate atlantoaxial joint
disease with bursitis and subluxation of joint due to RA.
It is generally accepted that there is a coupling pattern at the atlantoaxial joint
. The axial rotation of c1 is associated with vertical translation.
As in rheumatoid arthritis, atlantoaxial joint
subluxation, atlantooccipital subluxation and upward subluxation of the axis may occur in AS as a consequence of instability resulting from the inflammatory process.
Atlantoaxial subluxation involves a widened atlantoaxial joint
that can be stable or unstable with movement.
The TAL is the most important ligament, stabilizing the atlantoaxial joint
against translational forces.2 The TAL runs posterior to the dens and anterior to the spinal column.
Severe muscle spasm of the neck secondary to osteomyelitis of the atlantoaxial joint
. Ear Nose Throat J 2007;86(7):380-1.