atherosclerotic


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Related to atherosclerotic: arteriosclerosis, abdominal aorta

ath·er·o·scle·rot·ic

(ath'er-ō-skler-ot'ik),
Relating to or characterized by atherosclerosis.

ath·er·o·scle·rot·ic

(ath'ĕr-ō-skler-ot'ik)
Relating to or characterized by atherosclerosis.

atherosclerosis

(ath?e-ro?skle-ro'sis ) [ athero- + sclerosis]
The most common form of arteriosclerosis, marked by cholesterol-lipid-calcium deposits in the walls of arteries that may restrict blood flow. atherosclerotic (skle-rot'ik), adjective See: coronary artery disease for illus

Pathology

The initial pathological changes, called fatty streaks, are visible on the endothelial surfaces of major blood vessels by the age of 10. These lesions may progress to thickening of the lining of arteries (a process called intimal thickening) if risk factors for atherosclerosis are not addressed. Whether these lesions in turn progress to advanced lesions, called fibrous plaques, depends on hemodynamic forces (e.g., hypertension) and abnormal plasma levels of lipoproteins (e.g., high levels of total and LDL cholesterol; low levels of HDL cholesterol). Ultimately, arteries affected by the disease may become nearly completely blocked, a condition that causes ischemia. If a plaque within a blood vessel suddenly ruptures, the blood vessel may close and organs or tissues may infarct.

See: myocardial infarction; peripheral vascular disease; stroke

Etiology

Risk factors for atherosclerosis include use of tobacco, diabetes mellitus, elevated blood lipid concentrations, hypertension, family history, male gender, menopause, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, age, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. The role of vascular inflammation due to chronic infections or elevated homocysteine levels are topics of active research.

Symptoms

Symptoms may develop in any organ system with a blood supply diminished by atherosclerosis. These symptoms commonly include angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, strokes, transient ischemic attacks, and renal insufficiency.

Treatment

Treatment includes regular exercise, stopping smoking, and a dietary regimen of low-cholesterol and low-fat foods. Medical treatment of hypertension, lipid disorders, and diabetes mellitus is also helpful. Angioplasty, atherectomy, or arterial bypass graft operations are beneficial for some patients.

Patient care

The patient and family are taught about risk factors associated with atherosclerosis, and the health care professionals help the patient modify these factors. Patients who smoke cigarettes are encouraged to enroll in smoking cessation programs. Community-based plans and programs to change sedentary activity patterns, reduce stress, control obesity, and decrease saturated fat intake to control triglyceride and cholesterol levels are explored with the patient. The nurse or other health care professional refers the patient for medical treatment to control hypertension and diabetes mellitus and supports the patient's efforts to cooperate with lifestyle and health care changes. Regular exercise of a type and extent appropriate for the patient's health and adequate rest are prescribed. The patient is informed of the need for long-term follow-up care to prevent a variety of body system complications.

atherosclerotic

pertaining to atherosclerosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Interactive Effects of Traditional and Novel Risk Factors on Human Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques
The substudy focused on 3,081 of the patients with proven ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis and/or a mobile thrombus or plaque in the aortic arch that was judged to potentially have caused their index stroke.
Another therapeutic strategy implicates a "direct" therapy, which is aimed to prevent the onset and progression of atherosclerotic lesions by inhibiting the molecular and cellular mechanisms of atherogenesis in human arteries (Orekhov and Tertov 1997; Orekhov et al.
In addition, there was significant correlation between NIHSS score and high-sensitivity-CRP in patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (p<0.
14] developed a perivascular shear stress modifier (called a cast) which could induce changes in shear stress patterns in a straight vessel for studying the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesions of stable and vulnerable phenotypes in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice.
pylori infection in coronary atherosclerotic plaques and carotid plaques using molecular method and assess the probability of the infection on development of coronary artery disease.
Yang and colleagues calculated that an annual 7,930 atherosclerotic CVD deaths would be prevented with full statin compliance, a reduction of 12.
In the current randomized study, investigators assigned 947 patients with resistant hypertension or elevated chronic kidney disease and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis to medical therapy that either included or excluded stenting.
This data has important implications with regard to a possible protective effect of HRT on atherosclerotic conditions, particularly in patients at higher risk for these conditions due to medical co-morbidities," said Caron B.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the presence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was investigated by polymerase chain reaction in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic vascular samples taken from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery due to CAD, and from patients undergoing aortic (AVR) and/or mitral valve replacement (MVR) secondary to valvular stenosis.
676) investigated whether increased mitochondrial oxidant production affects atherosclerotic susceptibility and response to atherogenic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]).

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