The neuroprotective effects of IGF-1 are unclear but it is known that IGF-1 receptors are present in brain endothelial cells, microglia, and astroglia
and even in neurons .
Parpura, "TRPC1-mediated [Ca.sup.2+] and [Na.sup.+] signalling in astroglia
: differential filtering of extracellular cations," Cell Calcium, vol.
Vance, "Expression of ABCG1, but not ABCA1, correlates with cholesterol release by cerebellar astroglia
," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Accumulations of hypertrophic, highly glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive astroglia
are prominent in the spinal cord during EAE , yet whether they serve to positively or negatively modulate disease progression is unknown.
The researchers found that, after exposure to high levels of alcohol, the levels of proteins associated with brain injury expressed by cells called astroglia
in the animals' brains increased dramatically.
"This ongoing inflammatory process was present in different areas of the brain and produced by cells known as microglia and astroglia
," said Pardo.
Akiguchi, "A distinctive distribution of reactive astroglia
in the precentral cortex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis," Acta Neuropathologica, vol.
While microglia are the chief mediators of inflammation in the brain, astroglia
are part of the inflammatory response as well.
Results of neuroimaging studies are often decisive in the classification of a given lesion because both the heterotropia and true encephalocele often consist solely of aggregatd astroglia
embedded in fibrous tissue.
They differentiate into oligodendroglia and astroglia
, and self-renew, migrate, and populate developing and/or degenerating central nervous system regions .
: Characteristic star-shaped cells in the brain and spinal cord that are a type of glial support cell; also called astrocytes; astrocytes and other glial support cells perform many functions to support neurons and thus, normal brain functioning.
Of note, GFAP may be focally positive, which has been interpreted as reactive astroglia
. Because of their capillary network, central neurocytomas may present with bleeding.