astrocyte


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astrocyte

 [as´tro-sīt]
a neuroglial cell of ectodermal origin, characterized by fibrous or protoplasmic processes; collectively called astroglia or macroglia.
 Astrocyte in association with a blood vessel. From Dorland's, 2000.

as·tro·cyte

(as'trō-sīt),
One of the large neuroglia cells of nervous tissue.
See also: neuroglia.
[G. astron, star, + kytos, hollow (cell)]

astrocyte

(ăs′trə-sīt′)
n.
A star-shaped cell, especially a neuroglial cell of nervous tissue.

as′tro·cyt′ic (-sĭt′ĭk) adj.

as·tro·cyte

(as'trō-sīt, astrŏ-sīt)
One of the large neuroglia cells of nervous tissue.
See also: neuroglia
Synonym(s): astroglia, macroglia.
[G. astēr, star, + kytos, chamber, cell]
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ASTROCYTES

astrocyte

(as'tro-sit?) [ astro- + -cyte, cell]
A common, asterisk-shaped glial cell with many radiating cell processes. Astrocytes are neuroectodermal cells that begin as radial glia that later mature into multipolar cells. Astrocytes are spread homogeneously throughout the central nervous system and each astocyte occupies its own compartment of neuropil. The cell processes of an astrocyte are covered with "leaflets" of cytoplasm that contact axons, synaptic structures, blood vessels, and neighboring glia. Touching astrocytes are electrically coupled and can propagate calcium potentials and within its microdomain of neuropil, each astrocyte regulates the extracellular concentration of certain molecules, including neurotransmitters. In areas of injury, astrocytes can proliferate.
Synonym: astroglial cell See: illustrationastrocytic (as?tro-sit'ik), adjective

Cajal,

Santiago, Spanish histologist and Nobel laureate, 1852-1934.
Cajal astrocyte stain - a method for demonstrating astrocytes by impregnation in a solution containing gold chloride and mercuric chloride.
Cajal cell - Synonym(s): horizontal cell of Cajal
Cajal formol ammonium bromide solution
Cajal gold-sublimate method
Cajal uranium silver method
horizontal cell of Cajal - a small fusiform cell found in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex with its long axis placed horizontally. Synonym(s): astrocyte; Cajal cell
interstitial nucleus of Cajal - a group of neurons believed to be involved in the integration of head and eye movements. Synonym(s): interstitial nucleus

Deiters,

Otto F.K., German anatomist, 1834-1863.
Deiters cells - the supporting cells of the organ of Corti; one of the large neuroglia cells of nervous tissue. Synonym(s): astrocyte; phalangeal cell
Deiters nucleus - lateral vestibular nucleus.
Deiters terminal frames - platelike structures in the organ of Corti uniting the outer phalangeal cells with Hensen cells.

as·tro·cyte

(as'trō-sīt, astrŏ-sīt)
One of the large neuroglial cells of neural tissue.
See: neuroglia
[G. astēr, star, + kytos, chamber, cell]
References in periodicals archive ?
In 2014, Sejnowski, Salk postdoctoral researcher AntEnio Pinto-Duarte and their colleagues showed that disabling the release of gliotransmitters in astrocytes turned down a type of electrical rhythm known as a gamma oscillation, important for cognitive skills.
'Although astrocytes appear to all look alike in the brain, we had an inkling that they might have specialized roles in the brain due to regional differences in the brain's function and because of observed changes in certain diseases,' says Rothstein.
In human beings, this occurs after the fourth month of pregnancy, when the production of nerve cells tends to finish and that of astrocytes to increase.
Astrocytes work to clear so-called amyloid beta proteins from the spaces between neurons, but decades of evidence has shown that if the clearing process goes awry, amyloid proteins pile up around neurons, leading to the characteristic amyloid plaques and nerve cell degeneration that are the hallmarks of memory-destroying Alzheimer's disease.
To establish an astrocytes hypoxia injury model, cells were subjected to hypoxic (3% [O.sub.2], 5% C[O.sub.2] balanced with [N.sub.2]) culture.
"We're now able to see how astrocytes and synapses make physical contact and determine how these connections change in disorders like Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease," said Baljit Khakh, a professor of physiology and neurobiology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
Glial cells, especially astrocytes, are both biochemically and structurally coupled with neuronal networks, and thus, the feedback mechanisms between these cell types have numerous implications for the prolonging secondary injury mechanisms like neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.
The change in the membrane potential is studied by simulating the injection of the current of 4mA to the astrocyte model (Figure 2).
Compared to microglia, there are few reports concerning the effects of isoflavones on astrocytes; genistein suppresses neuroinflammatory changes induced by hemolysate [26] or amyloid [beta] [27].
Eilert-Olsen et al., "Glial-conditional deletion of aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) reduces blood-brain water uptake and confers barrier function on perivascular astrocyte endfeet," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
The content of IL-1[beta] and IL-6 in astrocyte medium was measured by using ELISA kits (BosterBio, Pleasanton, CA), according to the manufacturer's manual.