Among fertility issues, male infertility is diagnosed in about 40% of all cases and the major causes are poor motility of spermatozoa (asthenospermia
), low sperm count (oligospermia), abnormal sperm morphology (teratospermia) and/or combinations of these, leading to their inability to fertilize an oocyte.
Analysis of the correlation of CATSPER single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with idiopathic asthenospermia
. J Assist Reprod Genet.
Genes including tektin-2 (TEKT2) , dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 (DNAH5), DNAH11 , heat shock protein-70 , peroxiredoxin-6 , protamine 2  and proteins including vesicle associated membrane protein 4 , outer dense fiber protein (ODF) , a-kinase anchoring protein 4 , calcium and integrin binding 1 , actin beta (ACTB) have been found to be associated with low-motility sperm (asthenospermia
) in mice, swine, humans and cattle.
Clinical efficacy of combined L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on idiopathic asthenospermia
. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2008;14(2):149-51.
A recent study has shown that in vitro supplementation of an appropriate dose of zinc increases significantly the total antioxidant status in infertile men with asthenospermia
and asthenoteratospermia .
The first study  was performed on 79 men with asthenospermia
([leptin] = 4.72 ng/mL) and 77 control men ([leptin] = 3.75 ng/ mL).
Melotti, "Carnitine supplementation in human idiopathic asthenospermia
: clinical results," Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research, vol.
The criteria for inclusion in the male infertility group were women with partners who had asthenospermia
or who were candidates for percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and those with 3-4 failed intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles.
Polyglycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii (GTW) was used to establish rat asthenospermia
Observation of the bacterial infection on sperm motility and morphology showed that Asthenospermia
(motility less than 50%) 76.33% (Figure 3) and Teratospermia (abnormal morphology greater than 50%) 86.16% (Figure 4) respectively.
was observed in 37 (25.81 Percent), teratospermia in 11 (3.26 Percent) and oligoasthenoteratospermia in 4 (9.09 Percent) of samples.
Clomiphene or tamoxifen for idiopathic oligo/ asthenospermia
. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD000151.