An essential step before data assimilation is quality control.
To improve the effect of GPS RO refractivity data assimilation and forecasting, this paper adopts a simple quality control scheme for refractivity data: (1) exclude observation data below 3 km with errors in O-B that are too high; (2) set a high vertical resolution due to the GPS RO refractivity data (there are 500 m intervals in the troposphere, and the upper troposphere to the stratosphere has an interval of nearly 1 km), while keeping the vertical level of the pattern relatively small (usually only approximately 30 layers); therefore, unnecessary observations between the two model levels should be eliminated to match the resolution of the model; (3) use standard deviation between the observation data and model simulations to get rid of the outlier data.
To determine the influence of the quality control scheme on the assimilation effect, four experiments (Table 2) were designed: the control run test (CTRL), the GPS RO refractivity data local observational operator assimilation scheme (REF_NQC), the GTS conventional radiosonde observation data assimilation scheme (STN), and the GPS RO refractivity data local operator plus quality control assimilation scheme (REF_QC).
It is understandable if singers and teachers associate the term assimilation with the notion of a special context, encountered only on occasion, that requires particular treatment, as in French.
Assimilation typically assumes a number of common forms.
This is the type of assimilation familiar from French and known as vowel harmonization, in which a vowel is modifed to conform to the vowel in the ensuing syllable: "heureux" [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], "les baisers" [le.be.ze].
Finally, analysis of the diagnostics of four-dimensional variational assimilation is not the only approach to diagnosing model error, but by virtue of its ability to disentangle the different physical processes at work in the context of a system that considers both the full dynamical equations of motion and a large abundance of data, it is likely that any problem encountered in our numerical experiment will also be encountered in less direct and less objective approaches.
The first-guess departures and analysis increments, two objective diagnostics of data assimilation, should contain strong fingerprints of model error (Klinker and Sardeshmukh 1992; Rodwell and Palmer 2007).
Data assimilation is the procedure by which a numerical model of the atmosphere is guided by observational data to best represent the atmosphere's true evolving state.
Until recently, antisemitism and discrimination played a major role in encouraging radical assimilation. Superficially, things appear to have changed.
(25) To subsume these developments under the general category of assimilation, in this authors view, underestimates their radical nature.
These gifted scholars have constructed a "master narrative" that downplays the more radical manifestations of modernity in two ways--first, by minimizing the prevalence of forms of radical assimilation such as apostasy and intermarriage; secondly, by overlooking the role of syncretism and surrogacy as major mechanisms of coping with modernity.