Corynebacterium renale, Corynebacterium cystidis and Corynebacterium pilosum, are opportunistic pathogens that inhabit the urinary tract of cattle and other domestic animals, where they causes cystitis and ascending pyelonephritis
sporadically (Baird et al., 2007).
Garg studied the effect of passive and active immunization with pili of Escherichia coli in the prevention of ascending pyelonephritis
. He used the transport of glucose and amino acids, and renal brush border membrane enzymes as sensitive biochemical markers of renal damage to assess the protective effect of immunization with pili.