We found statistically significant correlations between increased resistance to 5-fluorocytosine and higher activity of acid phosphatase; increased resistance to ketoconazole and higher activity of beta-glucuronidase; increased resistance to miconazole and higher activity of beta-glucosidase; increased resistance to itraconazole and higher activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosidase, as well as increased susceptibility to itraconazole and higher enzymatic activity of cystine arylamidase
and naphthyl phosphohydrolase.
Leuconostoc species are incapable of producing leucine aminopeptidase and pyrrolidonyl arylamidase
iniae: acetoin production (Voges Proskauer) (Remel, USA), aminopeptidase leucine (LAP) (Remel, USA), arylamidase
pyrrolidonyl (PYR) (Remel, USA), starch hydrolysis (Merck, Germany) and esculin hydrolysis (Neogen, Acumedia, USA).
Microbes were also categorized on the basis of their capability to biosynthesize specific enzymes (Pyrrolydonyl-Arylamidase
, Acetyl Glucosaminidase, Glutamyl transferase, Glucosidase, Xylosidase, Glutamyl, Proline & Tyrosine arylamidase
, Lactate & Succinate alkalinisation, etc), to resist antimicrobial agents such as 2,4 Diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine (O/129) or to assimilate other metabolites (Malate/ Lactate), etc as represented in table 2.
Strains were sent by the various participating institutions when SDSE was reidentified by [beta]-hemolysis on sheep blood agar (Becton Dickinson, Tokyo, Japan) and met the following criteria: agglutination results indicated Lancefield group A, C, or G; resistance to bacitracin; lack of L-pyrrolidonyl arylamidase
, according to the Manual of Clinical Microbiology (2); and, for some isolates, 16S rRNA sequencing results consistent with SDSE.
Alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, leucine arylamidase
, and jV-acteyl-P-glucosaminidase (NAGase) were the only enzymes available for analysis.
Tabatabai MA, Garcia-Manzanedo AM, Acosta-Martinez V (2002) Substrate specificity of arylamidase
and valine arylamidase
detected was strong for all strains tested, However, valine and cystine arylamidase
activities were very low or absent in some strains of Lactococcus.
epidermidis, the tests described by Bannerman (23) and MAcFaddin (24) were used: production of bound coagulase factor ("clumping") and coagulase-free production of hemolysis, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase
enzyme, urease, ornithine decarboxylase, novobiocin susceptibility and fermentation of the carbohydrates mannitol, mannose and trehalose.
Now, Key characters are used for species and subspecies identification include colony morphology, oxygen requirements, coagulase, clumping factor, heat-stable nuclease, hemolysins, catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease, ornithine decarboxylase, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase
, [beta]- galactosidase, acetoin production, nitrate reduction, esculin hydrolysis and aerobic acid production from a variety of carbohydrates including D-trehalose, Dmannitol, D-mannose, D-turanose, D-xylose, D-cellobiose, L-arabinose, maltose, -lactose, sucrose, and raffinose, and intrinsic resistance to novobiocin and polymyxin B .
For five enzymes (esterase (C4), cystine arylamidase
, trypsin, [alpha]-chymotrypsin.
75 [micro]g) discs (Becton Dickinson, USA) and L-pyrrolidonyl arylamidase
(PYR) test (Becton Dickinson, USA) as well as latex agglutination test (Plasmatec Lab.