artificial chromosome


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Related to artificial chromosome: Bacterial artificial chromosome

artificial chromosome

n.
A large sequence of DNA, such as a human artificial chromosome or a bacterial artificial chromosome, that is constructed in a laboratory to function like a chromosome or inserted into a cell to be replicated and expressed. Artificial chromosomes have been used in gene mapping and in modeling genetic diseases.

artificial chromosome

The result of a biotechnology still at an experimental stage. Human chromosomes, consisting of a centromere of highly repetitive DNA sequences, telomeric DNA, a marker gene and some random sequences of genomic DNA, have been successfully prepared. When these ingredients were introduced into a human cell line they became coated with histone proteins and formed highly coiled structures. They also replicated and passed on copies to daughter cells through more than 200 cell divisions.
References in periodicals archive ?
Following a similarly adventuresome strategy, geneticists have now thrown several forms of DNA into human cells and created a long-desired prize: the first human artificial chromosome. "We put in three types of DNA and [the chromosome] self-assembled," says Huntington F.
A physical map with yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones covering 63% of the 12 rice chromosomes.
Bacterial artificial chromosome library construction was essentially the same as that described by Tomkins et al.
Construction and preliminary characterization of a river buffalo bacterial artificial chromosome library.
Stem cell-mediated transfer of a human artificial chromosome ameliorates muscular dystrophy.
Artificial chromosomes is important for the synthetic life-forms that scientists expects to design for a range of applications, including industrial manufacture of new types of medicines and drugs for human and animal medicine, capability to generate new types of microbes with genetic codes that could generate cheaper ways to use crude oil as automotive fuel or create improved medicines without having harmful side effects.
Natalay Kouprina of the US National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, who is a part of the team that successfully created genetically engineered mice with an extra human artificial chromosome in their cells, told the Independent that it is the first time such an advanced form of a synthetic human chromosome built 'from scratch' has been shown to work in an animal model.
(1990) Mapping chromosome band 11q23 in human acute leukemia with biotinylated probes: identification of 11q23 translocation breakpoints with a yeast artificial chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 9358-9362.
Roughly 200 signed entries are arranged alphabetically, beginning with advanced biomass cookstoves, agricultural biotechnology, agrobacterium, and amino acids (commercial use), and ending with wastewater treatment, weaponization, wheat (genetically engineered), xenotransplantation, and yeast artificial chromosome. Each entry is structured uniformly with subheads indicating introduction, historical background and scientific foundations, and impacts and issues.
Traditional CGH arrays, which are represented by the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based CGH array, and the oligonucleotide-based CGH array detect CNVs at different resolutions.
But when they tried to insert it into another bacterium from which the DNA had been removed, the artificial chromosome didn't work.

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