10] reported the articulation disorder
of affricates in the majority of children (75%), while Vuletic and Ljubesic  claim that there is a high frequency of articulation disorders
of fricatives in addition to affricates.
Voice disorders were the most common (4%), followed by articulation disorders
(3%), and (0.
Some of the factors of articulation disorders
are including physical and structural abnormalities such as cleft palate, jaw and teeth abnormalities, etc, neurological disorder, mental retardation, hearing disorder and environmental disorder.
The endured habitual reflex of sucking the pacifier, lips, fingers, teething rings and other toys becomes a parafunction, which may be the cause of malocclusion and articulation disorders
2 microdeletion, autism has been reported in 15-45% and speech and articulation disorders
have been reported in approximately 75% (2, 3).
Speech & Language: Articulation Disorders
- Expressive Disorders - Oral-Motor Difficulties - Resonance/Voice Disorders - Pronunciation Difficulties - Communication Difficulties - Communication impairments related to Autism Spectrum Disorders - Receptive and/or expressive language delay - Articulation disorder
- Speech and language impairments due to hearing loss - Fluency disorders/stuttering - Voice disorders - Childhood Apraxia of Speech - Social skills/pragmatic language impairments motor skills for children
Of these, 436 are mentally ill and 241 physically handicapped, while 134 are visual impaired, 214 hearing impaired, 343 suffer from articulation disorders
and 15 suffer from autism.
This clinician's manual for treating articulation disorders
contains exercises and cueing strategies for improving the intelligibility of the targeted phonemes.
Finally, children that we would most likely believe to be at greatest risk for insufficient decoding ability, those with articulation disorders
, are actually the least likely to suffer from later reading problems than those with general language impairments.
For example, Catts (1991b) suggested that children who have pure articulation disorders
, without language disorders, are not at-risk for later phonological awareness difficulties.
In clinical practice, articulation disorders
are mainly evaluated by subjective tools.
Some patients may need speech-language pathologists for treatment of voice and articulation disorders
and language problems, including speaking, understanding, reading and writing