Specializing in children with apraxia of speech, autism, or articulation disorders
, the center also offers feeding therapy, IEP (special education) parent coaching and community outreach services.
Although some authors (10-13) have reported no correlation between UPPP and voice changes or articulation disorders
, others (7,9,14) have reported a correlation between UPPP and changes in the resonating volume of the vocal tract.
A direct method (face-to-face assessment, including screening and diagnostic techniques) was employed for identifying speech disorders (stuttering as well as voice and articulation disorders
) in the present investigation.
 reported the articulation disorder
of affricates in the majority of children (75%), while Vuletic and Ljubesic  claim that there is a high frequency of articulation disorders
of fricatives in addition to affricates.
Voice disorders were the most common (4%), followed by articulation disorders
(3%), and (0.5%) for fluency disorders.
are substitution (substituting a voice instead of another one as instead of articulating /k/ in the word book, /t/ is substituted /tetab/, omission of one voice or more as articulating adio instead of radio, such as saying /s/ labiodentals lisp, addition like adding one voice to a word.
The endured habitual reflex of sucking the pacifier, lips, fingers, teething rings and other toys becomes a parafunction, which may be the cause of malocclusion and articulation disorders
In the literature, psychiatric disorders including mainly schizophrenia have been reported in 10-30% of the patients with 22q11.2 microdeletion, autism has been reported in 15-45% and speech and articulation disorders
have been reported in approximately 75% (2, 3).
Of these, 436 are mentally ill and 241 physically handicapped, while 134 are visual impaired, 214 hearing impaired, 343 suffer from articulation disorders
and 15 suffer from autism.
This clinician's manual for treating articulation disorders
contains exercises and cueing strategies for improving the intelligibility of the targeted phonemes.
Finally, children that we would most likely believe to be at greatest risk for insufficient decoding ability, those with articulation disorders
, are actually the least likely to suffer from later reading problems than those with general language impairments.
For example, Catts (1991b) suggested that children who have pure articulation disorders
, without language disorders, are not at-risk for later phonological awareness difficulties.