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Superior articular process height: The distance from inferior margin to superior top of the process (Bazaldua Cruz et al.).
Then, keeping the angle with the epidermis at 45 degrees, insert the needle vertically to the depth of 8-12 cm toward the intervertebral foramen of the disk level until it reaches the anterior part of superior articular process. After reaching the intervertebral foramen of the spine, exfoliate the synechia of soft tissues in the vicinity of the intervertebral foramen located on the anterior side of the facet joint and inside the pedicle, all along the bone surface (see Figure 6).
Os sacrum was composed of 4 sacral vertebrae, appeared fused but the outlines of the transverse and articular processes were visible in most specimens studied (Figure 3(a)).
The sacrum consisted of two preserved sacral vertebrae (fused) containing portions of the spinous tubercles and articular processes for each.
Medial displacement of inferior facets and laminae, compensatory hypertrophic changes of the articular process in the adjacent vertebrae, and spondylolisthesis are also seen.
The final 4 processes include the 2 superior and 2 inferior articular processes. Each superior and inferior articular process connects to form a column of bone called the articular pillar.
When viewed from behind the most superficial part of the zygapophysial joint is the inferior articular process of the immediately superior vertebra.
right pedicle left superior articular surface Third to seventh cervical vertebrae anterior body right pedicle left superior articular process Thoracic vertebrae superior margin of body 1/14 inferior margin of body right lateral surface of body Lumbar vertebrae superior surface of body 2/8 superior margin of body inferior margin of body spinous process Vertebral fragments pedicle left superior articular process Sacrum
The scapula is like those of Rana and differs from Bufo and Scaphiopus in that the coracoid articular process is close to the clavicular articular process, which creates a narrow glenoid opening.
The SAPA was measured as the cross-sectional area by outlining the superior articular process at the narrowest foramen (Figure 1).
Following this, an 18-gauge needle was inserted to reach the facet of L5 superior articular process under a fluoroscopic guidance, and with a puncture angle of about 15[degrees].