Pedicle length: The distance between anterior margin of the superior articular facet
and posterior margin of the vertebral body (Bazaldua Cruz et al.; Devaraj et al., 2017).
Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994:92) define the posterior bridge of the atlas as being a "bony spicules [that] unite the posterior aspect of the superior articular facet
of CI with the posterior arch." Even though their definition states that the posterior bridge connects the arch and the facet, their illustration depicts both an incomplete bridge as well as a complete bridge possibly leading to inconsistencies in past scoring methods.
Besides, with the enlargement of the foramen height, the distance between inferior articular facet
of S1 and existing nerve root was increasing accordingly, which might lower the risk of neurologic deficit.
Spondylolysis is defined as a defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch, which is a bony bridge connecting the superior and the inferior articular facet
The facet line (FL) was defined as the line passing between the anteromedial and posteromedial margin of the bilateral superior articular facet
. The FJA is defined as the angle between RP and FL (Figure 1).
described the cross-sectional area of the superior articular facet
The facet force was determined by the distance between the superior and inferior articular facet
points of the adjacent vertebra.
Many anatomic studies have demonstrated that the majority of calcanei have a conjoined anterior and middle talocalcaneal articular facet
 The superior articular facet
of the atlas is accommodated within this fossa during the movements of the atlantooccipital joint.
In some vespertilionids (such as Eptesicus, Perimyotis, Myotis, Lasionycteris), the ulna has a small or absent olecranon process, is unfused at the semilunar notch but fused slightly more distally along the shaft beneath or just distal to the semilunar notch, and contributes its own separate, small articular facet
to the semilunar notch.
The measured parameters included dimensions regarding lateral masses of axis vertebrae focused on pedicle, superior articular facet
, inferior articular facet
, foramen transversarium and pedicle angles.
Unilateral facet dislocation occurs when flexion combined with rotation forces one inferior articular facet
of a vertebra to pass superiorly and anteriorly to the superior facet of the vertebra below (Figure 9).