Anterior dislocations are the most common and result in displacement of the condyle anterior to the articular eminence
into the infratemporal fossa.
AlKayat-Brahmley incision (Figure 3) was given, blunt dissection was done to identify trunk and branches of facial nerve, the fascia, along with the facial nerve, was retracted and the exposure of the articular eminence
of the TMJ was done.
The AEI was measured on lateral digital skull images as the angle between the best fit line drawn along the posterior wall of the articular eminence
and the Frankfurt horizontal plane.
2 Disc displacement can be defined as abnormal position of articular disc against condyle and articular eminence
7] During tonic-clonic seizures, TMJ dislocation occurs when uncoordinated forces caused chiefly by the lateral pterygoid muscles, unilaterally or bilaterally, protract the articular discs and mandibular condyles out of the mandibular fossa causing both the condyles and the articular discs to crossover the articular eminence
into infratemporal fossa.
Changes in articular eminence
inclination during the craniofacial growth period.
The head of the condyle does not articulate and slide bone-against-bone; rather, it has a small, tough disc that has indentations on the top, where the articular eminence
slides, as well as on the bottom into which the head of the condyle rests.
Effect of food consistency on the shape of the articular eminence
and the mandible.
Degenerative bone changes of the TMJ are significantly more frequent in the head of the mandible than in the articular eminence
, and are characterized by the development of osteophytes, erosions, avascular necroses, subchondrial cysts and intra-articular foreign bodies.
The independent variables (predictors) were the following: the shape of mandibular condyle, flattening of articular eminence
, erosion of articular eminence
, erosion of mandibular condyle, erosion of articular fossa, mandibular subchondral cyst, osteophytosis, mandibular subchondral sclerosis, and position of mandibular condyle.
Major components of the TMJ include the mandibular condyle, the articular disc, the glenoid fossa, and the articular eminence
of the temporal bone (Figure 1).
One of the main elements of the TMJ is the articular disc, that divides the joint in two compartments and also relates the condile bone to the mandibular fossa, an the articular eminence
of the temporary bone.