most points of infection were found in areas where the cuticle folds and at arthrodial
membrane locations, which usually are areas out of reach for allogrooming by nest mates.
This survey found that almost all respondents assessed passive cervical ROM; however, most respondents always used a visual estimate to measure cervical ROM and never used a goniometer or arthrodial
Hemolymph (1 ml) was collected from the arthrodial
membrane between the coxa and the base of the cheliped using a 1-ml syringe with a 23-gauge needle.
The bleeding process of experiment 1 involved removing horseshoe crabs from their holding tank, positioning them in a bleeding rack, and disinfecting the surface of their arthrodial
membrane with a 70% ethanol-soaked cotton swab.
A 500-[micro]L sample of hemolymph was then withdrawn by inserting a 21-gauge needle and a 1-mL syringe into the arthrodial
membrane at the base of the fourth walking legs, and the sample was injected onto the sample well.
One person held the animal in the abdominal flexure position, exposing the arthrodial
membrane of the medial dorsal surface at the joint between the prosoma and the opisthosoma, while a second person withdrew the hemolymph.
The dorsal arthrodial
membrane was disinfected with 70% ethanol and 2.5 mL hemolymph was collected from the dorsal abdominal artery/sinus into a sterile 3.0-mL syringe with a 23-gauge needle.
After 14 d of cyclic DO, the inhibition of the TCA cycle has been lifted and the response has shifted toward upregulation of genes encoding the lipid-transport proteins vitellogenin and apoliprotein A1, together with upregulation of an arthrodial
membrane protein that is similar to blue crab AMP9.3 (Faircloth and Shafer, 2007).
At the end of each acclimation period, 200-[micro]l samples of hemolymph were withdrawn from the arthrodial
membrane of the walking legs.