The photos were checked for four types of retinopathy: arteriovenous nicking, focal arteriolar narrowing
, retinal microaneurysms, and retinal hemorrhage.
[4,5] Retinal arteriolar narrowing
(focus or generalised) is the most common finding in pre-eclampsia.
In the study of  20659 patients were involved, 1178 patients of them had stroke, and they found the Odd Ratio (OR) of stroke and retinal arteriolar narrowing
and AV nicking was 1.42 and 1.91, respectively, which indicated that these abnormalities are slightly associated with stroke.
and venular widening were both less pronounced in the patients following bariatric surgery.
and venular widening were both less pronounced, whereas no such changes took place in the control group.
We have demonstrated that retinal arteriolar narrowing
, venular dilation, and decrement in fractal dimension all independently predict long-term development of diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and PDR [61, 63].
reported a higher prevalence of focal arteriolar narrowing
in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma and NTG than in patients with ocular hypertension and normal controls .
The diffuse arteriolar narrowing
related to chronic hypertension is commonly seen (Brown et al., 2005).
(14) Other target organ effects include impaired cognitive function, reduced glomerular filtration rate, microalbuminuria, and retinal arteriolar narrowing
(2010) were the first to associate exposure to air pollution with arteriolar narrowing
. Among 4,607 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), CRAE narrowed by 0.8 [micro]m (95% CI: -1.1, -0.5) in association with an interquartile increase in long-term exposure [3 [micro]g/[m.sup.3] [PM.sub.2.5] (particulate matter [less than or equal to] 2.5 [micro]m in diameter) during the 2 years preceding the clinical exam].
Classic clinical findings include bone spicules, pigmentation or pigment clumping, retinal arteriolar narrowing
, waxy pallor of the optic nerve, epiretinal membrane formation, atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choriocapillaris (starting at the mid-periphery of the retina with preservation of the RPE in the macula until late in the disease), posterior sub-capsular cataract, epi-retinal membrane formation, and cystoid macular edema (CME) (Hamel, 2006).
Hypertension and retinopahy, arteriolar narrowing
and arteriolar nicking in a population.